The Spanish were able to take control of Tenochtitlan because to their superior armament as well as a terrible outbreak of smallpox that occurred during the 93 days that Cortés’ army laid siege to the city. The triumph of Cortés brought to the fall of the Aztec empire, and the Spanish then started to cement their dominance over what would eventually become the province of New Spain.
The Aztecs, now headed by Cuauhtemoc, ultimately capitulated after 93 days of struggle on the fatal day of August 13, 1521 CE. They had run out of food and were being devastated by the smallpox illness, which had been introduced to the Aztecs by one of the Spaniards previously. The city of Tenochtitlan was pillaged, and its monuments were obliterated.
The horrific sacrifices, religion, plagues, and the tactics utilized by the Spanish against the Aztecs were the four key causes that were visible in the demise of the Aztecs..
In 1521, a group of foreign invaders headed by the Spanish conqueror Hernán Cortés successfully destroyed the Aztec Empire and took control of Tenochtitlan, bringing an end to Mesoamerica’s last great indigenous civilisation.
The Aztecs had lost faith in Montezuma, their food supply was running low, and an outbreak of smallpox had begun among them. More than three million Aztecs perished as a result of the smallpox epidemic; with such a severely depleted population, it was very simple for the Spanish to conquer Tenochtitlán.
An exploration mission to find gold on the North American continent was what kicked off the process of gaining control of Mexico. Cortés led around 450 troops to Mexico in 1519 and made his way from Veracruz on the Gulf Coast to the island city of Tenochtitlan, which was the magnificently gorgeous Aztec capital situated in Lake Texcoco. Cortés arrived in Mexico from Veracruz.
The Spanish were successful in their conquest of North and South America not only due to their possession of horses, dogs, firearms, and swords, but also due to the fact that they carried viruses with them that caused many native Americans to get ill. Native Americans had never been exposed to diseases such as measles or smallpox; as a result, they lacked immunity to these conditions.
Nahua is the name that has come to be used for the Aztecs’ descendants in modern times. More than one and a half million Nahua people make their life in tiny settlements that are spread out throughout wide swaths of rural Mexico. These people make their living mostly by farming and sometimes by selling handicrafts.
By the 1500s, they had not only survived, but even triumphed over their adversaries, and they were making every effort to ensure that they would not be forced to regress. They conquered their neighbors, at first the various ethnic groups that lived in the central core of Mexico, and subsequently far further away, by employing both their intelligence and their physical might.