During the Egyptian Middle Kingdom (c. 2040-1640 BCE), Egypt began expanding into Nubian territory in order to control trade routes, and to build a series of forts along the Nile. Depiction of Battle with the Nubians: This painting shows Ramses II battling Nubians from his war chariot.
Nubia and Egypt Egypt began to realize that if they controlled Nubia’s resources, they would be able to trade for even more goods from other countries. For that reason, Egypt conquered Nubia for a short time during the Middle Kingdom and again during the New Kingdom. The Nubians had to pay tribute to the pharaoh.
In 1500 BC, Egypt conquered all of Nubia, forging a great empire that stretched all the way from the Euphrates in Syria to the 5th Cataract of the Nile. For over 500 years, Egypt’s wealth made the Pharaohs of the New Kingdom, like Tutankhamun, the most powerful rulers on the face of the earth.
When the Egyptians were strong, especially during the New Kingdom, Nubia was a great wealth source for the Egyptians. The Egyptians established forts and colonies that exploited Nubia’s rich mineral resources, which they then traded on the international market with other Near Eastern kingdoms.
King Piankhi is considered the first African Pharaoh to rule Egypt from 730 BC to 656 BC.
In 727 BCE, Kush took control of Egypt and ruled until the Assyrians arrived. The empire began to weaken after Rome conquered Egypt and eventually collapsed sometime in the 300s CE. The Kingdom of Kush had two different capital cities.
5.3 What was the main reason the Middle Kingdom ended? The Hyksos conquered Egypt and disorder and violence swept through Egypt ending teh Middle Kingdom.
It was the seat of one of the earliest civilizations of ancient Africa, the Kerma culture, which lasted from around 2500 BC until its conquest by the New Kingdom of Egypt under Pharaoh Thutmose I around 1500 BC, whose heirs ruled most of Nubia for the next 400 years.
During the Egyptian Middle Kingdom (c. 2040-1640 BCE), Egypt began expanding into Nubian territory in order to control trade routes, and to build a series of forts along the Nile. Nubians appear to have been assimilated into Egyptian culture.
The Nile brought the ancient Egyptians and Nubians a constant source of water, allowing them to fish, farm, trade, and build communities along its banks. The land might have been less fertile. There might have been less farming, less food, and, therefore, less people.
Nubia was home to some of Africa’s earliest kingdoms. Known for rich deposits of gold, Nubia was also the gateway through which luxury products like incense, ivory, and ebony traveled from their source in sub-Saharan Africa to the civilizations of Egypt and the Mediterranean.
Scholars have suggested a number of reasons for this decline, including desertification and loss of trade routes. People in the Roman Empire converted to Christianity on a large scale during the fourth and fifth centuries A.D., and Christianity also began to make its way into Nubia.