How was Egypt conquered by the Byzantine Empire?
For almost 30 centuries—from its unification around 3100 B.C. to its conquest by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C.—ancient Egypt was the preeminent civilization in the Mediterranean world.
Thutmose III was a skilled warrior who brought the Egyptian empire to the zenith of its power by conquering all of Syria, crossing the Euphrates (see Tigris-Euphrates river system) to defeat the Mitannians, and penetrating south along the Nile River to Napata in the Sudan.
The dynastic period started with the reign of Egypt’s first king, Narmer, in approximately 3100 BCE, and ended with the death of Cleopatra VII in 30 BCE. During this long period there were times of strong centalised rule, and periods of much weaker, divided rule, but basically Egypt remained one, independent land.
In 305 BC, Ptolemy took the title of King. As Ptolemy I Soter (“Saviour”), he founded the Ptolemaic dynasty that was to rule Egypt for nearly 300 years.
In 525 BC, the Persian Empire, led by King Cambyses II, invaded Egypt. They soundly defeated the Egyptian army at the Battle of Pelusium and took control of Egypt. When the Persian Empire conquered Egypt, it was the largest empire in the world. Egypt then became a “satrapy” (like a province) of the Persian Empire.
When Alexander the Great seized Egypt on his mission to conquer the Persian Empire in 332 B.C., he was one in a long line of Greeks who were dazzled by Egypt and its ancient culture.
Thutmose III is often compared to Napoleon, but unlike Napoleon he never lost a battle. He conducted sixteen campaigns in Palestine, Syria and Nubia and his treatment of the conquered was always humane. He established a sort of “ Pax Egyptica” over his empire.
Thutmose III continued to launch military campaigns throughout his reign. Over the course of at least seventeen military campaigns, Thutmose conquered hundreds of cities and expanded Egypt’s borders to include Nubia, Canaan, and southern Syria.
Nubia and Egypt became rivals due to Nubia’s strategic location as a bridge or gateway for goods traveling between central Africa and Egypt. Nubia also had rich mineral resources, such as gold, copper, and iron ore. Three powerful kingdoms rose in Upper Nubia and began to challenge Egypt for control of the land.
The Ancient Egyptian Civilization Ancient Egypt is one of the oldest and culturally rich civilizations on this list. The civilization coalesced around 3150 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh.
Ra, The Creator God of Ancient Egypt.
A unified kingdom was formed in 3150 BC by King Menes, leading to a series of dynasties that ruled Egypt for the next three millennia. Egyptian culture flourished during this long period and remained distinctively Egyptian in its religion, arts, language and customs.
In 30 BC the Romans took control of Egypt. The Romans ruled for over 600 years until around 640 AD. In 332 BC, Alexander the Great swept down from Greece conquering much of the Middle East all the way to India. Along the way he conquered Egypt.
Menes, also spelled Mena, Meni, or Min, (flourished c. 2925 bce), legendary first king of unified Egypt, who, according to tradition, joined Upper and Lower Egypt in a single centralized monarchy and established ancient Egypt’s 1st dynasty.