The discovery of gold at Dahlonega, Georgia, in 1828, which triggered the Georgia Gold Rush, resulted in the expulsion of the Cherokees in 1838 (the last forcible removal east of the Mississippi), and the subsequent Georgia Gold Rush.
|Trail of Tears|
|Attack type||Forced displacement Ethnic cleansing|
During the Gold Rush period, two Native American descendants of these tribes, April Moore and Professor Frank LaPena, as well as historian James Rawls, tell us about what occurred to Native Americans during that time period. Historically, the original tribes of California subsisted primarily on hunting and collecting the bountiful resources available on the area.
It was followed by the California Gold Rush of 1848–1855 in the Sierra Nevada, which attracted the public’s attention and captured the imagination of the general public. As a result of the California gold rush, the United States established a permanent presence in California, which was admitted to the union in 1850 at a quick pace.
Major gold rushes occurred in Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, South Africa, the United States, and Canada throughout the nineteenth century, with lesser gold rushes taking place in other locations as well. Because of lower migration costs and lower obstacles to entrance in the nineteenth century, the wealth that ensued was widely spread around the world.
The Cherokees were forcefully relocated westward by the United States government during the fall and winter of 1838 and 1839, according to historical records. In the course of this forced march, which came to be known as the ‘Trail of Tears,’ around 4,000 Cherokees died.
The Cherokees were forced off their lands as a result of the need for fertile land during the rapid rise of cotton cultivation in the Southeast, the finding of gold on Cherokee lands, and the racial hatred that many white southerners held for American Indians during this time period.
The Gold Rush, on the other hand, was not favorable to everyone. It resulted in an escalation in violence towards Native Americans, tens of thousands of whom are reported to have died in fights with settlers as a result of the conflict. Later in the Gold Rush, immigrants from China were subjected to a great deal of hostility and discrimination.
The Maidu and other tribes (including the Nisenan, Koukow, Miwok, Pomo, and Yokuts) lived primarily in the Sierra foothills, which contained the highest concentration of gold. Their river salmon runs were destroyed by placer mining, and their homelands were destroyed by harsh mining practices, which led to the extinction of the tribes.
The Removal Act of 1830 was passed as a result of Jackson’s encouragement of Congress to accomplish his goal. The Act created a procedure by which the President may award territory west of the Mississippi River to Indian tribes who consented to relinquish their ancestral territories in exchange for compensation.
With the passage of the act, the president was empowered to offer Indian tribes undeveloped western prairie territory in exchange for their valuable holdings within state lines (particularly in the Southeast), from which the tribes would be expelled.
Prior to the arrival of European invaders, an estimated 300,000 indigenous people lived in tiny communities throughout the territory. Contact with the new immigrants resulted in significant disturbances to the indigenous way of life in the area. The California gold rush of 1848 caused much greater havoc. The tribes were overrun by violence, sickness, and death.
By 1870, the Native population of California had dropped to an estimated 31,000 people, with more than 60% of the population dying as a result of illnesses introduced by the 49ers to the region. tribes were also forcefully moved to missions and reservations and slaughtered, as well as progressively driven from their homelands and forced to work as domestic slaves.
The gold rushes opened up vast swaths of territory to permanent resource exploitation and colonization by White people, paving the way for the development of modern civilization. The relocation and marginalization of many indigenous populations in the region was also a result of these policies (see also Northwest Coast Indigenous Peoples; Central Coast Salish).
As a result of these raids, Native Americans were routinely slain, compelled to pay extortionate taxes or fees, driven from the region, enslaved, or coerced into taking part in agonizing marches to missions and reservations, including the Round Valley Reservation.
The Californians were wrecked by the gold rush; they were forced off their land, and there was a lack of regard for their culture and legal rights as a result. Hundreds of thousands of Native Americans perished as a result of sickness. California has been admitted to the union as a free state by the United States Congress.
Eighty percent of the state’s Native American population was wiped off in the twenty years after the discovery of gold. They were the victims of forced relocations, sickness, and genocide perpetrated in the name of power and riches. John Sutter had laid the groundwork for their demise, but his ruthlessness was only the beginning of the story.
With the entrance of Europeans came illnesses that claimed the lives of a large number of Cahuilla people. In instance, a smallpox outbreak that ravaged the Cahuilla people in 1863 took away more than eighty percent of the population. Today, the population is slowly but steadily beginning to expand once more.
The Karok, Maidu, Cahuilleno, Mojave, Yokuts, Pomo, Paiute, and Modoc were among the tribes who lived in the area. The mountains that separated the groups, on the other hand, rendered significant conflict unfeasible, and the California tribes and clans were able to live a relatively tranquil existence.