|Navajo Nation Naabeehó Bináhásdzo (Navajo)|
|Established||June 1, 1868 (Treaty)|
Between the years 200 and 1300 A.D., anthropologists have proposed a theory that suggests the Navajo people separated from the Southern Athabaskans and moved into the Southwest. In the region that is now the northwestern corner of New Mexico, the Navajo people created a culture that was diverse, wealthy, and advanced between the years 900 and 1525 A.D.
The Navajo people refer to themselves as the Diné, which literally translates to ‘the People.’ According to Diné origin legends, the people who live in the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, which border the Mesa Verde region to the northeast, arrived there from the fourth planet.
The Navajo people are believed to have arrived in the Southwest between 800 and 1,000 years ago, after crossing the Bering Strait land bridge and moving south. This theory is supported by anthropologists.
In 1923, in response to the growing interest shown by American oil corporations in leasing Navajo territory for the purposes of exploration, a tribal government was founded to assist satisfy those companies’ demands. The Navajo government has developed into the most advanced and comprehensive form of American Indian government throughout the course of its history.
The Navajo (Diné), much like other Native American nations, ratified many treaties and battled against the efforts of the United States to open up new routes from the East Coast to California. In the 1860s, the Navajo (Diné) people were forcibly evacuated from their homelands by the United States government, despite the best efforts of the Navajo people themselves.
Rugs and blankets created by the Navajo are famous across the world. The Pueblo people were the ones who taught them how to weave cotton in the beginning. After they began breeding sheep, they shifted their focus to wool production. These blankets had a high price tag, thus the only people who could buy them were the affluent leaders.
The Navajo people now occupy four reservations, the largest of which is located in Arizona and is next to the Hopi Pueblo reserve. The remaining three are located in the state of New Mexico. There are approximately 190,000 Navajo people living in the United States, 146,000 of whom reside on reservations. The high plateau in Colorado is home to a number of Navajo reservations.
The Navajo Tribe is the most populous and geographically extensive American Indian group in the United States at this time, with over 250,000 members and a reservation that spans over 27,000 square miles.
Carson’s command received further support from scouts belonging to the Ute, Zuni, and Hopi tribes, who had historically been the Navajo’s adversaries. The Navajo crops and communities were intended to be destroyed, and Navajo livestock was to be captured.
At gunpoint, the United States Army leads the Navajo people away from their homeland in Arizona and New Mexico and marches them to Fort Sumner in Bosque Redondo, which is approximately 300 miles distant from where they originated. During the course of the march, hundreds of people lose their lives.
Unless you have a valid camping, hiking, or backpacking permit that was given by the Navajo Parks and Recreation Department or another validly designated tribal authority, all locations on the Navajo Nation are off limits to those who are not members of the Navajo tribe. On federal Indian land, trespassing is regarded to have occurred if a permit had not been obtained.
On the early 1860s, European-descended Americans began to settle in and surrounding Navajo territory, which led to warfare between Navajo people on one side and settlers and the United States Army on the other. As a result of the battle, the Army devised a plan to uproot all of the Navajo people from their traditional territory.
Approximately 298,000 people are counted as members of the Navajo Nation, making it the second biggest tribe in terms of total population. More than 173,000 Navajos call the reservation their home.