Conquistadors from Spain led by Hernán Cortés formed an alliance with indigenous peoples in order to take Tenochtitlan, the capital city of the Aztec empire. The Spanish were able to take control of Tenochtitlan because to their superior armament as well as a terrible outbreak of smallpox that occurred during the 93 days that Cortés’ army laid siege to the city.
After routing a significant portion of the Aztec army at Otumba, the Spaniards eventually located and reestablished contact with their Tlaxcaltec allies. Cortés returned to Tenochtitlán in May 1521, and after a three-month siege, the city was finally defeated. The Aztec empire was brought to its knees as a result of this triumph.
The weapons utilized by the Spanish was considerably more advanced than anything the Aztecs or Incas had ever created.To deal with the Aztecs, Cortés and his troops employed more than a dozen enormous portable weapons, mostly for their shock value.The employment of gunpowder, which the Incas did not have available to them, was another factor that contributed to Pizarro’s success in his conquest of the Incas.
They discovered that the city’s social structure had crumbled. The Aztecs had lost faith in Montezuma, their food supply was running low, and an outbreak of smallpox had begun among them. More than three million Aztecs perished as a result of the smallpox epidemic; with such a severely depleted population, it was very simple for the Spanish to conquer Tenochtitlán.
The fragile nature of the Aztec Empire, the strategic advantages offered by Spanish technology, and the presence of smallpox all contributed to Cortez and his expedition’s successful fall of the Aztec Empire.
The peoples that the Spanish captured were treated in what manner? Spanish landlords exploited locals by forcing them to work on their ‘encomienda,’ which required them to cultivate, ranch, or mine for them.
Poor nobles from the impoverished west and south of Spain made up the majority of Spanish conquistadors. They were able to conquer the vast empires of the New World with the assistance of superior military technology, disease (which weakened indigenous resistance), military tactics including surprise attacks and powerful weaponry.
And by the year 1428, Itzcoatl, also known as ″Obsidian Snake,″ the emperor of the Aztecs, together with Tlacaelel, his principal adviser, led the Aztecs to victory against their former friends and oppressors. The Aztecs built a dominion in the 15th century that eventually included the majority of what is now Mexico under the leadership of a series of ambitious rulers who ruled over them.
Pizarro, who had fewer than 200 soldiers to fight several thousand, enticed Atahualpa to a feast held in the emperor’s honor and then opened fire on the unarmed Incans. Atahualpa was killed in the ensuing battle. Pizarro’s troops destroy the Incans and capture Atahualpa, who is forced to convert to Christianity before being killed by Pizarro’s men.
By the year 1521, the Mexica capital city of Tenochtitlan had been reduced to ashes, Emperor Montezuma had passed away, and the Spanish had established complete dominance over the region they began to refer to as ″New Spain.″ In the course of their journey, Cortes and his soldiers amassed hundreds of pounds of gold and silver, as well as precious stones, gems, and valuable works of Aztec art.
Any of the leaders in the Spanish conquest of America, particularly in the 16th century in Mexico and Peru, is referred to as a conquistador. The word ″conquistador″ comes from the Spanish word ″conquista,″ which means ″conqueror.″