Ethiopian Jews are Biblical Jews who lived before to the arrival of the Rabbis. They have the Torah (written law), but not the Talmud (Ordinance on the Law) (Oral Law). It is not Hebrew, but Ge’ez, that they communicate in. Priests (kohanim) rather than rabbis serve as the group’s leaders.
Ethiopian Jews were initially transferred to Israel from refugee camps in Sudan in a series of covert operations carried out by Israel’s Mossad intelligence service in the early 1980s on the orders of then-Prime Minister Menachem Begin in accordance with the country’s foreign policy. Additional operations were carried out, culminating in a massive airlift from Ethiopia in 1991.
As recorded in the Kebra Nagast, Ethiopians are descended from Israelite tribes that migrated to Ethiopia with Menelik I, who is said to be the son of King Solomon and Queen Sheba (or Makeda, according to mythology) (see 1 Kings 10:1–13 and 2 Chronicles 9:1–12).
For more than three decades, the Israeli government flew thousands of Ethiopian Jews to Israel, saving them from political and economic peril in their home country. Ethiopian Jews, according to one story, are sprung from one of the ten tribes of Israel, and their faith is an old version of biblical Judaism, according to another.
Ethiopia’s three primary ethnic groups are the Tigrais, the Amharas, and the Oromos, who constitute the majority of the population. They account for nearly three-quarters of the country’s entire population when taken individually.
One of the two primary ancestral groupings of Jewish people, consisting of those whose forefathers resided in Central and Eastern Europe, is the Sephardic Jewish people (e.g., Germany, Poland, Russia). Other Jews are classified as Sephardic Jews, and they are individuals whose origins originated in North Africa, the Middle East, or Spain.
Approximately two-thirds of Ethiopia’s population is Christian, with one-third of the population identifying as Muslim. Approximately 43.5 percent of the population identified as Ethiopian Orthodox Christian, 33.9 percent identified as Muslim, and 18.5 percent identified as Protestant Christian, according to the most recent census data from 2007. (Pentay).
When the Twelve Tribes were sent to Ethiopia in 1974, they were among the first Rastafari organizations to do so, and the organization redefined itself in relation to the broader landscape of Back-to-Africa initiatives and other Rastafari affiliations. This occurred just before the Ethiopian revolution in 1974.
The Khazars are the Thirteenth Tribe of the Koestlees. They first emerge as overlords of the East Slays in the fifth century of our era, after the Huns as the region’s dominant power.
The Ten Lost Tribes of Israel were a group of 10 of the original 12 Hebrew tribes that, under the leadership of Joshua, conquered Canaan, the Promised Land, following Moses’ death. They were known by the names Asher, Dan, Ephraim, Gad, Issachar, Manasseh, Naphtali, Reuben, Simeon, and Zebulun. They were all sons or grandchildren of Jacob, and they were all called after him.
Because Edom or Esau is Jacob’s brother, and Abraham’s sons Ishmael and Isaac are the sons of Abraham, the twelve tribes of Israel are described as offspring of a man named Jacob or Israel in the Bible. Elam and Ashur, the names of two ancient nations, are the sons of a man named Shem, who was the father of Elam.