Around 8000 B.C., pre-Inca cultures began to flourish in the Andes and along the coast. Caral and Kotosh are two of the earliest cultures that are known to have existed in this region. After them came the Chavin, the Paracas, the Nazca, the Moche, the Tiawanaku, the Wari, and the Chimu.
The Tiwanaku Empire (about 300–1100 AD), which was concentrated around Lake Titicaca, and the Wari or Huari Empire (around 600–1100 AD), which was located near the city of Ayacucho, were the two large-scale civilizations in the Andes that came before the Inca Empire.
The Incas are most known for creating the Inca Empire in Pre-Columbian America. This empire, which flourished from 1438 to 1533 and was located in the region that is now known as Peru, is considered by many to be the pinnacle of American civilisation. Before the year 1438, the Inca kingdom was commonly referred to as the Kingdom of Cuzco.
Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (Pachakuti ‘Inka Yupanki), a son of Viracocha Inca, took the throne from his brother Inca Urcon (‘Inka ‘Urqon) in 1438, which is the earliest date that can be confidently assigned to the history of the Inca dynasty. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui was also known as Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui.
The civilization of the Incas During the pre-Columbian era in South America, the Incan Empire was the most powerful and expansive of all the empires. This civilisation thrived throughout what is now Ecuador, Peru, and Chile, and its administrative, military, and political capital was located in Cusco, which is located in what is now Peru.
This civilisation thrived throughout what is now Ecuador, Peru, and Chile, and its administrative, military, and political capital was located in Cusco, which is located in what is now Peru. The Incan civilisation was a long-standing and prosperous culture when it was at its peak. The sun god Inti was worshiped in an ardent manner by the Inca people.
The Tiwanaku civilization left its mark on the Andes long before the Inca Empire came to power in South America.Another civilisation flourished in what are now sections of Bolivia, northern Chile, and southern Peru hundreds of years before the Inca Empire advanced down the Pacific coast of South America.This civilization flourished in areas that are now located in Bolivia, northern Chile, and southern Peru.
Tiwanaku is widely acknowledged by scholars of Andean history as being one of the most significant civilizations that existed prior to the rise of the Inca Empire. This is because Tiwanaku served as the ceremonial and administrative capital of a significant state power for approximately five hundred years.
Chim and Nasca were two of the earliest known peoples to call this area home, and they did so thousands of years ago. Although it only accounts for around 10 percent of Peru’s total landmass, the coastal desert is home to more than half of the country’s population.
The Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, and Maya civilisations were all more technologically accomplished than the Aztecs, who went on to build the vast Aztec empire. In point of fact, the Olmec were Mexico’s first known culture. They established their settlements close to what is now Veracruz on the Gulf Coast, and they are famous for the carved head sculptures they created.
In the middle of the 15th century, it is thought that Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, the ninth Inca king, was responsible for the construction of Machu Picchu. As a builder of empires, Pachacuti was responsible for the beginning of a series of conquests that would eventually lead to the expansion of the Inca kingdom over South America, all the way from Ecuador to Chile.
At this period — ten years before to the beginning of Francisco Pizarro’s Conquest of Peru — the location known as Bir represented one of the southernmost places known to the Spaniards.It was located in what is now known as Ecuador.In spite of the fact that it was located a significant distance to the north of the Inca Empire, the term Bir, which eventually evolved into Peru, came to denote all that was located to the south.
The Chavn culture flourished in what is now Huántar and Ancash in Peru between the years 1200 and 400 B.C.E.This theocratic society worshiped a feline god that resembled a jaguar and established its settlements in that region (central Peru).Despite never developing into a military empire, the Chavn were successful in unifying tribes of people all throughout Peru over the course of eight centuries.
Both the Norte Chico culture, which is considered to be one of the six oldest civilizations in the world, and the Inca Empire, which was the greatest and most advanced empire in pre-Columbian America, originated in Peru. Norte Chico is considered to be the oldest civilization in the Americas.
The Maya were, by a significant margin, the oldest people on Earth. By the year 1000 BCE, the culture had become fully entrenched, which was more than 2,000 years before the time of the Incas and Aztecs. The Maya and the Aztecs each held sway over portions of the territory that is now Mexico.
According to Elward, ″the majority of those who are still living in the towns of San Sebastian and San Jeronimo, Cusco, Peru, at the current time are perhaps the most homogenous group of Inca descent.″
There are no completely indigenous Incans left alive today; these people were almost entirely wiped off by the Spanish, who slaughtered them in warfare or caused them to die of illness.
Amerindians make up over half of all people who live in Peru, making about 45 percent of the total population. The Quechuas and the Aymaras are the two most prominent indigenous ethnic groups, although there are also several dozen smaller Amerindian ethnic communities dispersed throughout the nation beyond the Andes Mountains and in the Amazon basin.
As of the year 2007, the population of Peru included more than 4 million Indigenous Peoples, of which 83.11 percent were Quechua, 10.92 percent were Aymara, 1.67 percent were Ashaninka, and 4.31 percent belonged to other Amazonian Indigenous Peoples. According to the Census, the Quechua made up 83.11 percent of the population in Peru.