The winters in Inca are long, cold, windy, and partially overcast, while the summers are brief, warm, humid, dry, and largely clear. In contrast, the summers are mostly cloudy. The temperature seldom drops below 33 degrees Fahrenheit or climbs over 92 degrees Fahrenheit during the course of a year, although it frequently ranges from 40 degrees Fahrenheit to 86 degrees Fahrenheit.
Because the Inca empire maintained control over four distinct climatic zones, the Incas were able to cultivate a wide variety of crops. The ancient people of the Andes were mostly vegetarian, but when they could get their hands on it, they did augment their diet with camelid meat and fish.
Farming in the Manner of the Incas Archaeologists are finding that the Incas were masters of their harsh climate, and the ancient civilization has a lot to teach us today. People in the Cuzco region of Peru are rebuilding terraces and irrigation systems and reclaiming traditional crops and methods of planting in response to recent archaeological research.
Agriculture was the backbone of the economy, and corn (also known as maize), white potatoes, sweet potatoes, squash, tomatoes, peanuts (also known as groundnuts), chili peppers, coca, cassava, and cotton were the primary crops grown. They bred dogs, guinea pigs, ducks, llamas, and alpacas as well as other animals. Cotton and wool from llamas were used to make clothes.
They produced hardy varieties of crops including potatoes, quinoa, and corn, among others. They constructed water storage cisterns as well as irrigation canals that zigzagged and slanted their way down and around the mountains. In addition to this, they hacked terraces into the hillside, beginning in the lowlands and working their way up the slopes.
The Andes Mountains were the Inca people’s home. South America’s Pacific coast is bounded on its western side by the Andes Mountains, which run the whole length of South America’s western coast. The Andes are the tallest mountains in the Americas, and the plateaus that divide them are likewise located at very high elevations.
Incan farmers were able to create mountainside terraces for growing crops at elevations that were previously too cold to sustain agriculture as a result of increased temperatures that began around 1150. These higher temperatures brought an end to thousands of years of frigid aridity.
The Incas were able to build parts of the mountain that were suited for farming by carving flat planes into the rock. These regions are able to survive the challenges that are typical of mountain climates since they are surrounded by stone walls. The Incas were able to cultivate, and they also had domesticated types of plants that were better able to survive in severe environments.
The Incas were not one of the tribes that lived in the coastal desert, although there were a few other tribes that did. They were most comfortable in their house in the mountains.
Peasants living in the Andes today who communicate in Quechua and make up around 45 percent of Peru’s total population are believed to be direct descendants of the Inca. They employ basic, age-old technologies in conjunction with their agricultural and herding practices.
According to Elward, ″the majority of those who are still living in the towns of San Sebastian and San Jeronimo, Cusco, Peru, at the current time are perhaps the most homogenous group of Inca descent.″
Seeds, pollen, fragments of charcoal, and other detritus found in different layers of the core piece together a picture of the climate and agriculture in the region over the past 4,000 years. According to the findings of the analysis of the core, a severe drought started in the area around the year 880 and continued for at least 100 years.
The summers in Aztec are extremely warm, dry, and mainly clear, but the winters are extremely cold, snowy, and partially overcast. The temperature seldom drops below 7 degrees Fahrenheit or rises over 96 degrees Fahrenheit throughout the course of a year, although it regularly ranges from 19 degrees Fahrenheit to 90 degrees Fahrenheit.
They were able to adjust to their surroundings. They constructed boats so that they could hunt and fish more effectively. They made medicinal preparations from of the many plants they discovered in the region. They accomplished this by cultivating food in gardens that were suspended in the water.
The Inca were able to adjust to their surroundings by constructing footbridges that connected their roadways despite the presence of the Andes Mountains.
What kind of preparedness measures did the Inca administration take in the face of natural disasters? Assisted victims of natural catastrophes by delivering items such as food and clothing.
They constructed water storage cisterns as well as irrigation canals that zigzagged and slanted their way down and around the mountains. In addition to this, they carved terraces into the hillsides, beginning in the lowlands and working their way up the slopes.
In addition to vegetables like beans and squash, corn (sometimes spelled maize) served as the primary staple item in their diet. Potatoes and a very fine grain known as quinoa were two of the most prevalent crops cultivated by the Incas. In addition to a vast range of fruits, the Aztecs and Maya were known to choose avocados and tomatoes as their primary sources of nutrition.
In Inca theology, the sun deity was known as Inti, who was also referred to as Apu-punchau. The Incas thought that Inti was their ancestor. The worship of Inti, who was placed at the head of the state religion by the Inca, was mandatory across their whole kingdom.