Sources of nutrition Deer, elk, black bear, woodchuck, beaver, porcupine, turkey, trumpeter swan, and ruffed grouse were all taken during the hunt. I collected a variety of delicious seeds, grasses, and nuts. Pumpkin, squash, sunflower, and goosefoot are all commercially grown crops.
The Adena were mostly hunter-gatherers, although they also farmed and cultivated crops. They cultivated a variety of crops, including squash, gourds, sunflowers, and maize. They needed a well-functioning community in order to construct the vast earthworks.
The Adena and Hopewell Indians were a member of the Woodland civilization that resided in southwestern Ohio at the time of the founding of the state. Historically, the Hopewell were the descendants of the Adena, and their cultures shared many characteristics. Earthen mounds, which were used for burial and ceremonial reasons in both societies, were an important element of both.
They buried famous people in the mounds, despite the fact that cremation was a prevalent kind of burial ritual. In order to preserve the corpses of the deceased, the Adena buried them in existing mounds and covered them with soil, which caused the mounds to grow in size over time.
From 1000 B.C. to 200 B.C., the Adena were a people that resided in the Ohio River Valley. They did not cultivate, despite the fact that they lived in communities. Hunting, fishing, and collecting were the primary sources of sustenance for them. The Adena traded copper and mica artefacts with neighboring tribes in exchange for food and clothing.
The Adena people were the first in the region to make clay pottery, which was distinguished by big, thick-walled containers used for cooking, as well as various flatforms used for grinding seeds and other ingredients. They also fashioned tools out of stones, bones, and antlers, such as hoes, axes, and missiles, as well as weapons.
Most of the Adena lived in communities with circular dwellings with conical roofs made of poles, willows, and bark, however some of them were content to live in rock shelters. They were able to survive via hunting, fishing, and foraging for wild plant foods.
Adena Culture mounds were typically conical in design, and they were utilized exclusively for burial purposes throughout their time period. In addition to burial mounds, the Hopewell Culture had them as well, although these burial mounds were more typically found inside or alongside huge sized earthworks, such as those seen in Newark and Chillicothe, rather than outside of them.
In addition to engaging in small-scale horticulture production, the Adena were the first people in Ohio to make clay pottery, which is characterized by big, thick-walled pots that were presumably used to boil crushed seeds into an oatmeal-like material, according to archaeological evidence.
The Adena Mound was built in two parts over a period of several years, each phase taking place in a separate historical period. The mound was 26 feet tall and had a circumference of 445 feet and a diameter of 90 feet. It was surrounded by an earthen wall and ditch that was round in shape. It was made of black sand, which was most likely collected from a nearby lake known as Lake Ellesmere.
Construction of conical mounds and tiny circular earthen enclosures was common among the Adena people during the Early and Middle Adena civilizations. These structures were often placed in conspicuous sites, frequently at the borders of river basins, and were intended to serve as public memorials.
The Adena Pipe, the State Artifact of Ohio, is an American Indian effigy pipe that was excavated from the Adena Mound in 1901 and is now on display at the Columbus Museum of Art. It is located approximately one and a half miles northwest of Chillicothe, Ohio, in the Ross County Historic District.
In an odd twist of fate, the name Adena was given to an ancient Indian society that existed in West Virginia from around 1000 BC to AD 1, and it comes from a Hebrew term that means ″a place notable for the delightfulness of its location.″
The Mound Builders did not have a written language, according to what has been discovered so far, and they communicate exclusively through the objects that have been discovered and researched.
The Adena were well-versed in the skill of burying their dead in enormous mounds of soil. Thousands of individuals were interred in each mound, causing the mound to grow in size as more and more people were interred there.
From around 500 BCE until 100 CE, the Adena people were prosperous. They are well known for the clay mounds that they constructed. It is believed that the name Adena derives from a location where archaeologists discovered Adena mounds in the early 1900s. Many of the Adena’s descendants established in little settlements along the Ohio River’s banks.
During our exploration, we discovered that the lofty village had been created by the Anasazi, a culture that dates back to as early as 1500 BC. These people’s descendants are today’s Pueblo Indians, who include groups such as the Hopi and the Zuni who dwell in more than a dozen settlements along the Rio Grande in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.