The Mayans had both long-distance weapons and melee weapons. The long distance ones included bow and arrow , blowgun , slings and throwing spears . When the atlatl or spear thrower was brought to the Mayans from Teotihuacan around 400 A.D., it was quickly adopted and became the Mayans’ dominant long distance weapon.
The weapon was used by different civilisations including the Aztec (Mexicas), Maya , Mixtec and Toltec.
|In service||Classic to Post-Classic stage (900–1570)|
|Used by||Mesoamerican civilizations, including Aztecs Indian auxiliaries of Spain|
The tools that they had to work with were very simple. They used tools such as fire and basalt axes on wood. Fire was very unpredictable so they switched to basalt axes for a little more precision. On stone they used tools made of flint, obsidian, granite, limestone, and quartzite(Stierlin 132).
Weapons & Armour Aztec warriors, who were taught from childhood in weapons handling, were expert users of clubs , bows , spears , and darts . Protection from the enemy was provided via round shields (chimalli) and, more rarely, helmets . Clubs or swords ( macuahuitl ) were studded with fragile but super-sharp obsidian blades.
Maya priests in the city of Chichen Itza in the Yucatan peninsula sacrificed children to petition the gods for rain and fertile fields by throwing them into sacred sinkhole caves, known as “cenotes.” The caves served as a source of water for the Mayans and were also thought to be an entrance to the underworld.
After assembling a record-setting 154 radiocarbon dates, the researchers have been able to develop a highly precise chronology that illuminates the patterns that led up to the two collapses that the Maya civilization experienced: the Preclassic collapse, in the second century A.D., and the more well-known Classic
Blood was viewed as a potent source of nourishment for the Maya deities, and the sacrifice of a living creature was a powerful blood offering. By extension, the sacrifice of a human life was the ultimate offering of blood to the gods, and the most important Maya rituals culminated in human sacrifice .
The Maya had a system of serfdom and slavery . Serfs typically worked lands that belonged to the ruler or local town leader. There was an active slave trade in the Maya region, and commoners and elites were both permitted to own slaves .
Central to Mayan technology was the profound use of a special stone, known as Obsidian . In ancient Mexican culture this stone was called Itzli, literally the god of stone, as it was used to make weapons for war as well as cutting tools for everyday use .
Maya stelae were worked with stone chisels and probably with wooden mallets. Hammerstones were fashioned from flint and basalt and were used for shaping the softer rocks used to make stelae, while fine detail was completed with smaller chisels.
Like many Mesoamerican pyramids , each was constructed around a core of rubble held in place by retaining walls. The walls were then faced with adobe bricks, and then covered with limestone. The base of the Pyramid of the Sun measures 730 feet per side, with five stepped terraces reaching a height of some 200 feet.
For the Aztecs, deities of particular importance are the rain god Tlaloc ; Huitzilopochtli , patron of the Mexica tribe; Quetzalcoatl , the feathered serpent and god of wind and learning; and Tezcatlipoca , the shrewd, elusive god of destiny and fortune.
The fighting was very fierce , but Aztecs tried to wound or captured their enemies rather than kill them . When the Aztec’s general decided that the battle was won. Messengers were sent to call on their opponents to surrender. Once the enemy surrendered, a peace treaty was drawn up which listed the amount of tribute.
Aztec society was hierarchical and divided into clearly defined classes. The nobility dominated the key positions in the military, state administration, judiciary, and priesthood. There was a limited opportunity for individuals to better their social position, especially in the military and religious spheres.