The Mayan Pantheon: Gods and Goddesses Itzamna . Itzamna is a creator god, one of the gods involved in creating human beings and father of the Bacabs, who upheld the corners of the world. Yum Kaax. A nature god, Yum Kaax is the god of wild plants and animals, the god of the woods. Maize God. Hunab Ku. Kinich Ahau. Ix Chel. Chaac. Kukulkan.
The Mayans religion involved several aspects of nature, astronomy and rituals. Most Gods represented a form in nature, for example, Sun God, Kinih Ahous, or Maize God, Yum Kaax . The Mayans were known for their calenders and astronomical buildings.
Maya priests in the city of Chichen Itza in the Yucatan peninsula sacrificed children to petition the gods for rain and fertile fields by throwing them into sacred sinkhole caves, known as “cenotes.” The caves served as a source of water for the Mayans and were also thought to be an entrance to the underworld.
Scholars have suggested a number of potential reasons for the downfall of Maya civilization in the southern lowlands, including overpopulation, environmental degradation, warfare, shifting trade routes and extended drought. It’s likely that a complex combination of factors was behind the collapse.
To the Aztecs , death was instrumental in the perpetuation of creation, and gods and humans alike had the responsibility of sacrificing themselves in order to allow life to continue.
The Maya believed that when people died, they entered the Underworld through a cave or a cenote. When kings died, they followed the path linked to the cosmic movement of the sun and fell into the Underworld; but, because they possessed supernatural powers, they were reborn into the Sky World and became gods.
Tezcatlipoca , (Nahuatl: “Smoking Mirror”) god of the Great Bear constellation and of the night sky, one of the major deities of the Aztec pantheon. A creator god , Tezcatlipoca ruled over Ocelotonatiuh (“Jaguar-Sun”), the first of the four worlds that were created and destroyed before the present universe.
The jaguar was a favourite symbol in Aztec representations of war. Aztec names which included the term ocelotl were used to describe brave warriors – in this way, ocelopetlatl and oceloyotl described especially brave warriors, such as those of the high-status Jaguar Warrior Society.