Pacal was ruler of the Mayan kingdom of Palenque from age 12 until his death at age 80. The name Pacal means shield in the Mayan language. Pacal was responsible for the expansion of the city and oversaw the construction of many of its most magnificent structures.
Itzamnaaj Bʼalam II was a Maya king who ruled in Yaxchilan from 681 until he died in 742. He is also called Shield Jaguar II by modern writers and commonly referred to simply as Shield Jaguar based on his name glyph before the phonetic name was deciphered.
K’inich Janaab Pakal
Answer: Also known as Pacal and Pacal the Great , he is most successful for raising the city of Palenque ( known as B’aakal) from relative obscurity to a great power, his building projects in the city (especially the Temple of the Inscriptions), and his elaborately in Mexico.
80 years (603 AD–683 AD)
Also known as Pacal (which means ‘shield’) and Pacal the Great, he is most famous for raising the city of Palenque (known as B’aakal) from relative obscurity to a great power, his building projects in the city (especially the Temple of the Inscriptions), and his elaborately carved sarcophagus lid which has been
K’inich Janaab’ Pakal the Great
Pakal (also spelled Pacal ; meaning “shield” in several Maya languages) forms the (common) name or part of the full name of several pre-Columbian Maya personages identified in the monumental inscriptions of sites in the Maya region of Mesoamerica.
The Maya had a system of serfdom and slavery . Serfs typically worked lands that belonged to the ruler or local town leader. There was an active slave trade in the Maya region, and commoners and elites were both permitted to own slaves .
Scholars have suggested a number of potential reasons for the downfall of Maya civilization in the southern lowlands, including overpopulation, environmental degradation, warfare, shifting trade routes and extended drought. It’s likely that a complex combination of factors was behind the collapse.
The Maya believed that their king was given the right to rule by the gods. The leaders of the Maya were called the “halach uinic” or “ahaw”, meaning “lord” or “ruler”. There were also powerful councils of leaders who ran the government. They were chosen from the class of nobles.
The Maya today number about six million people, making them the largest single block of indigenous peoples north of Peru. Some of the largest Maya groups are found in Mexico, the most important of these being the Yucatecs (300,000), the Tzotzil (120,000) and the Tzeltal (80,000).
The ancient Maya never used coins as money . Instead, like many early civilizations, they were thought to mostly barter, trading items such as tobacco, maize, and clothing.
Blood was viewed as a potent source of nourishment for the Maya deities, and the sacrifice of a living creature was a powerful blood offering. By extension, the sacrifice of a human life was the ultimate offering of blood to the gods, and the most important Maya rituals culminated in human sacrifice .