After the Incas had successfully conquered a region, they would divide the land and cattle into three unequal parts: one for the state religion, one for the monarch, and one for the people who lived in the area.
Agriculture and Food Production in Inca Land Mashua, olluco, oca, sweet potato, beans, and potatoes, from which they obtained chuo, were the primary products that the Incas cultivated.In addition to corn, which was regarded as a sacred resource and reserved exclusively for the high military and ceremonial uses, the Incas also cultivated products such as mashua, olluco, oca, sweet potato, beans, and potatoes.
Incan agriculture.The Inca Empire, which stretched from 1438 to 1533 CE, had three very distinct ecosystems, each of which demanded a unique approach to agricultural practice.Inca agriculture was distinguished by a number of distinguishing features, including the wide range of crops that were cultivated, the absence of a market system and money, and the singular methods that the Incas used to manage their society.
This meant that the peasantry would continue to live a life of subsistence, which involved a difficult and functional diet consisting of two simple meals each day. The Inca nobles, in the meantime, relished the greatest delicacies their enormous kingdom had to offer, which came from all directions.
Papaya, pineapple, and avocado were some of the tropical fruits that the Incas cultivated and gathered. Cotton, corn, peanuts, and coca were some of the other crops that were cultivated in the Antisuyu neighborhood. The Incas referred to the region that stretched from the capital of Cuzco all the way out to the Pacific Ocean as Cuntisuyu.
They produced hardy varieties of crops including potatoes, quinoa, and corn, among others. They constructed water storage cisterns as well as irrigation canals that zigzagged and slanted their way down and around the mountains. In addition to this, they hacked terraces into the hillside, beginning in the lowlands and working their way up the slopes.
Due to the fact that they resided in the highlands, the Incas had to level land in order to cultivate it.They were able to accomplish this by constructing terraces.In order to make terraces, steps of land had to be dug into the slope.
They were able to increase their agricultural yields by employing this ingenious method of farming, which was also helpful for irrigating the land and warding off drought.
The Inca developed a method of farming called as terrace farming in order to address this issue.They created terraces by building walls on the slopes of the hills and then filling the terraces with soil.On the slopes of mountains, large steps are used to create terraces.
If the hilly terrain hadn’t been broken up by terraces, the terrain would have been too steep for farmers to irrigate, till, and harvest their crops.
Food was very straightforward for the Maya, Aztec, and Inca civilizations. In addition to vegetables like beans and squash, corn (sometimes spelled maize) served as the primary staple item in their diet. Potatoes and a very fine grain known as quinoa were two of the most prevalent crops cultivated by the Incas.
Quinoa, potatoes, and corn were the Inca people’s primary food sources, but they also employed a wide variety of other plants for medical purposes.
Growing altitudes for quinoa ranged from around 2,300 to 3,900 meters. Up to an altitude of 3200 meters, generally, and 3500 meters in ideal areas, maize was the primary crop that was produced. Cotton was an important crop in the region close to the Pacific Ocean and could be produced at heights of up to approximately 1,500 meters.
A wide variety of tubers, roots, and cereals were used as the primary sources of nutrition. There was a high regard for maize, despite the fact that it could not be cultivated to the same extent as it was further north. Guinea pigs and llamas were the most prevalent sources of meat, and dried fish was a significant food source as well.
The Inca Empire was founded on a foundation of grain and dung. According to a recent study, the seeds of the Inca Empire were planted approximately 2,700 years ago in the highlands of the South American Andes when a warm spell combined with piles of llama excrement allowed maize agriculture to take root at that altitude. This event ultimately led to the rise of the Inca Empire.
Although it is a member of the amaranth family and is therefore more closely related to spinach or turnips, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), which originates in South America, is sometimes referred to as the rice of the Incas. This is despite the fact that quinoa is a member of the amaranth family.
The Spanish invaders looked down on quinoa when it was first introduced. Because of its usage in rituals that the Spaniards considered to be ″pagan,″ its cultivation was prohibited at one time, and the Incas were ordered to plant wheat in its place.
The Incas are credited with being the first people in recorded history to create ways for the process of freeze-drying food. Specifically, this involved taking advantage of the cold weather by covering potatoes with a towel and putting them out overnight. The Incas would come back the next day to stomp over the potatoes in order to extract any further moisture from them.
It is thought that the Inca civilization was the first to plant potatoes in the Andes mountain region, which is approximately 3,800 meters higher in elevation than the sea level. Around the lake, wild potato plants already thrived, and groups of Inca farmers started domesticating the potato and learning how to store this hardy vegetable.
The Incas were very skilled in the process of plant domestication, particularly potato cultivation. Their evolution of the potato was remarkable: from eight different types of weeds whose tubers were poisonous to more than three thousand different varieties of potato.