Of all the ancient calendar systems, the Maya and other Mesoamerican systems are the most complex and intricate. They used 20-day months, and had two calendar years: the 260-day Sacred Round, or tzolkin, and the 365-day Vague Year, or haab. These two calendars coincided every 52 years.
Since the Tzolkin date for the beginning of the Maya world was 4 Ahau, we add 9 days to 4 days and 3 gods to Ahau, obtaining the Tzolkin date 13 Akbal. d) Haab Calendar Date: To determine the Haab date we begin by dividing R by 365, the number of days in the Haab calendar : 11,683 /365 = 32 + 3/365.
At the end of the 13th baktun, the Long Count calendar resets to 0.0. 0.0. 0. The ancient Maya reportedly believed that with each end of the Universal cycle, the Universe itself would “reset” by ending and starting over — not just the calendar — hence the doomsday interpretation.
In the Maya Long Count, the previous world ended after 13 bʼakʼtuns, or roughly 5,125 years. The Long Count’s “zero date” was set at a point in the past marking the end of the third world and the beginning of the current one, which corresponds to 11 August 3114 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar.
Mysterious Decline of the Maya From the late eighth through the end of the ninth century, something unknown happened to shake the Maya civilization to its foundations. One by one, the Classic cities in the southern lowlands were abandoned, and by A.D. 900, Maya civilization in that region had collapsed.
The tzolkʼin (in modern Maya orthography; also commonly written tzolkin ) is the name commonly employed by Mayanist researchers for the Maya Sacred Round or 260-day calendar.
Scholars have suggested a number of potential reasons for the downfall of Maya civilization in the southern lowlands, including overpopulation, environmental degradation, warfare, shifting trade routes and extended drought. It’s likely that a complex combination of factors was behind the collapse.
The Maya observed the sky and calendars to predict solar and lunar eclipses, the cycles of the planet Venus, and the movements of the constellations.
Aztec calendar , dating system based on the Mayan calendar and used in the Valley of Mexico before the destruction of the Aztec empire. Like the Mayan calendar , the Aztec calendar consisted of a ritual cycle of 260 days and a 365-day civil cycle.