As previously noted, the Incan healers were extraordinarily skilled in the field of brain surgery. Consequently, they would practice doing brain surgery on real patients using curare. They would also use copper and bronze equipment, such as knives, tweezers, hammers, and even chisels, to drill a hole into the skull, as well as a variety of other methods.
Studying more than 800 Inca skulls discovered in Peru and determining that they had undergone trepanation, a surgical procedure in which a hole is formed in a person’s head by cutting, scraping, or drilling, led to the discovery made by the researchers. According to the findings of the experts, between 17 and 25% of these Inca patients perished before their skulls healed.
The Inca skulls that were examined by the researchers date back to the year 400 B.C. Some of the skulls have as many as seven holes in them. These skulls provide evidence that the Inca perfected the technique of trepanation over the course of several centuries.
Using their skulls and hundreds of others from pre-Columbian Peru, a new study suggests that the success rates of premodern surgeons in that country were shockingly high: up to 80 percent during the Inca era, compared with only 50 percent during the American Civil War, which occurred some 400 years later.
It was believed that if a hole were drilled through the skull, it would reduce the amount of pressure that was placed on the brain. Certain researchers, on the other hand, assert that some surgeons used trepanations to do what we would term today ″legitimate″ neurosurgery to cure headaches, epilepsy, hydrocephalus, and mental problems, among other conditions.
Chicha was employed by the Incas to induce unconsciousness before to minor surgical procedures, and up until the 19th century, it was still being used in certain regions to execute female circumcision. Datura, espingo, tobacco, and the San Pedro cactus all have the potential to induce a profound trance state and, most likely, anesthesia.
Trepanation is possibly the oldest form of surgery for which there is archaeological evidence, and it is possible that it was used in a more widespread manner in some regions. The most important pieces of evidence discovered during archaeological digs are cave paintings and the bones of people.
Harvey Cushing, known as ″the founder of neurosurgery,″ conducted the first successful procedures for brain tumors in the early 1900s. In 1937, Walter Dandy was the first person to successfully clip an aneurysm.
A craniotomy is a surgery in which a portion of the patient’s skull is removed during the procedure. Craniotomy is a surgical procedure that allows a doctor to access the skull and remove abnormal or cancerous tissue from the brain.
In addition to vegetables like beans and squash, corn (sometimes spelled maize) served as the primary staple item in their diet. Potatoes and a very fine grain known as quinoa were two of the most prevalent crops cultivated by the Incas. In addition to a vast range of fruits, the Aztecs and Maya were known to choose avocados and tomatoes as their primary sources of nutrition.
Ichu grass was weaved into big bundles and used in the construction of the bridges. These bundles were exceedingly resilient. Each cable on the bridge was replaced once a year by the local villagers as part of their mit’a, which can be translated as either a public duty or a responsibility. This contributed to the bridge’s overall durability and dependability.
A significant number of the customs that the Inca upheld are being practiced in the Andes today. The production of textiles is still quite common, the meals they ate are still eaten today in many parts of the world, and ancient monuments like as Machu Picchu are major draws for vacationers. Even Quechua, one of their more archaic languages, is still frequently spoken today.
For instance, the Incas extracted quinine from the bark of one tree, which they then used to treat a variety of illnesses, including cramps, chills, and many more.The leaves of the coca plant were utilized by the Incas to dull the agony of those who were in distress.(Cocaine, which originates from the same plant, was subsequently recommended by medical professionals in the contemporary day for the same reason.)
Complex rites and procedures were mixed with animistic beliefs, various types of belief in things with magical abilities, and nature worship, which culminated in the worship of the sun, presided over by the Inca priests, to create this admixture.
This treatment, which is also known as ″trepanning″ or ″trephination,″ involves drilling a hole into the skull using a sharp tool.Other names for this procedure include ″trepanning.″ Craniotomies, which include the removal of a portion of the skull in order to get access to the brain, are becoming increasingly common in modern medicine.When doing brain surgery, surgeons will occasionally resort to this treatment.
This procedure is referred to as a craniotomy. Alternatively, the surgeon may decide not to put the bone back in place. A craniectomy is the medical term for this procedure. A burr hole technique is likely to have a lower risk of problems compared to the forms of surgery described here.
Is trepanation still performed in modern times? Nowadays, neurosurgery does not involve the use of trepanation for any medical reason. Another technique, known as a craniotomy, is performed in which a hole is temporarily created in the skull to drain fluids or relieve pressure, and then the hole is closed after a certain amount of time.