Around 1710 the Cherokee and the Chickasaw forced their enemy, the Shawnee, north of the Ohio River. During the 1660s, the Cherokee had allowed a refugee group of Shawnee to settle in the Cumberland Basin when they fled the Iroquois during the Beaver Wars.
By the early 18th century the tribe had chosen alliance with the British in both trading and military affairs. During the French and Indian War (1754–63) they allied themselves with the British; the French had allied themselves with several Iroquoian tribes, which were the Cherokee’s traditional enemies.
The wars can be divided into two phases. The first phase took place from 1776 to 1783, in which the Cherokee fought as allies of the Kingdom of Great Britain against the American colonies. The Cherokee War of 1776 encompassed the entirety of the Cherokee nation.
President Martin Van Buren sent General Winfield Scott and 7,000 soldiers to expedite the removal process. Scott and his troops forced the Cherokee into stockades at bayonet point while his men looted their homes and belongings. Then, they marched the Indians more than 1,200 miles to Indian Territory.
During the French and Indian War, they were heavily recruited by the British to fight against the French. At one time, the Cherokee nation controlled 140,000 square miles in the southern Appalachians. Although the Cherokee were recruited to fight, they were not involved in this battle.
On September 19, 1776, troops from South Carolina defeated a band of Cherokee Indians in what is now Macon County.
The 5 native tribes most feared by the US Army
Cherokee Indians developed the throwing hatchet style of the Tomahawk. (That method of fighting was lost after the Trail of Tears.) Basically, Cherokee could hunt with a special balanced hatchet. In a melee, Cherokee welding the hatchet were able to “open up the chests of those they attacked with a single blow.”
The Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole nations) allied with the Confederacy early in the Civil War. The Cherokees were the last to join this alliance because of internal political divisions between Principal Chief John Ross and his long-standing rival, Stand Watie.
President Andrew Jackson signed the measure into law on May 28, 1830. 3. The legendary frontiersman and Tennessee congressman Davy Crockett opposed the Indian Removal Act, declaring that his decision would “not make me ashamed in the Day of Judgment.”
John Ross (1790-1866) was the most important Cherokee political leader of the nineteenth century. He helped establish the Cherokee national government and served as the Cherokee Nation’s principal chief for almost 40 years.
The removal, or forced emigration, of Cherokee Indians occurred in 1838, when the U.S. military and various state militias forced some 15,000 Cherokees from their homes in Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, and Tennessee and moved them west to Indian Territory (now present-day Oklahoma).
The Eastern Band and Cherokees from the Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) fought in the American Civil War, with bands allying with the Union or the Confederacy. Because many Cherokees allied with the Confederacy, the United States government required a new treaty with the nation after the war.
French and Indian War, American phase of a worldwide nine years’ war (1754–63) fought between France and Great Britain.
During the American Revolution, the Cherokee Native Americans sided with the British and began attacking American settlements along the frontier in what became known as the Cherokee-American Wars. During the American Revolution, many Cherokee Native Americans joined the British ranks.