Mi’kmaq, also spelled Micmac, the largest of the Native American (First Nations) peoples traditionally occupying what are now Canada’s eastern Maritime Provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island) and parts of the present U.S. states of Maine and Massachusetts.
The meaning of the name is uncertain; some scholars say it is a word for “allies,” others believe it refers to the present-day Maritime Provinces of Canada. The Micmac call themselves Inu (pronounced EE-noo), a term they now apply to all Native Americans.
When the Mi’kmaq first encountered Europeans in the 16th and 17th centuries, their territory stretched from the southern portions of the Gaspé Peninsula eastward to most of modern-day New Brunswick, and all of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.
Where do the Micmacs live? The Micmacs are original people of the Canadian Maritimes, especially Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Due to their alliance with the Wabanaki tribes, Mi’kmaq people also lived throughout the broader Northeast Coast area including Quebec. Newfoundland, and Maine.
Definition of Micmac 1: a member of an American Indian people of eastern Canada. 2: the Algonquian language of the Micmac people.
The Micmacs of eastern Canada and the northeastern corner of the United States (who prefer the phonetic spelling Mi’kmaq) first appeared in their homeland approximately ten thousand years ago. They call the region Mi’kma’ki.
Fish of all kinds, including salmon and sturgeon, plus porpoises, whales, walrus, seals, lobster, squid, shellfish, eels and seabirds with their eggs made up the bulk of their diet. They also ate moose, caribou, beaver and porcupine, as well as smaller animals, like squirrels.
The Mi’kmaq were hunter-gatherers, and were semi-nomadic in that they routinely moved between summer fishing villages near the coast to winter camps inland.
The Shubenacadie Indian Residential School operated as part of Canadian Indian residential school system in Shubenacadie, Nova Scotia between 1930 and 1967. It was the only one in the Maritimes and children from across the region were placed in the institution.
Malecite, also called Maliseet, North American Indians of the Algonquian language family who occupied the Saint John valley in what is now New Brunswick, Can., and the northeastern corner of what is now the U.S. state of Maine.
The Anishinabe people usually lived in wigwams. These shelters were shaped like half walnut shells with entrances at one end. They were not easily portable and were made by using poles which were forced deep in ground. A smoke hole was created in the middle of the wigwam skeleton.
The Anishinaabeg (plural form of Anishinaabe) live from the Ottawa River Valley west across Northern Ontario and to the plains of Saskatchewan south to the northeast corner of North Dakota, northern Minnesota and Michigan, as well as the northern shores of Lakes Ontario and Erie.
Traditionally, the Mi’kmaq were seasonally nomadic. In winter they hunted caribou, moose, and small game; in summer they fished and gathered shellfish and hunted seals on the coasts.
Language – Tli’suti With the exception of hieroglyphics, the Mi’kmaw language is of an oral tradition – a spoken language that remains so today. It is a very intricate language often compared in complexity to Latin. The Mi’kmaw language is verb based.
The Mi’kmaq used a variety of weapons and tools to kill and process the game and fish upon which they depended. Spears and bows and arrows were used to take larger animals, while snares were employed to capture rabbits and partridge, and deadfalls were used for predators such as foxes and bears.