The Gabrielinos lived in this area in present-‐day Los Angeles and Orange Counties, south of the Chumash territory. They also occupied the southern channel islands including Santa Catalina. The Fernandeño people lived north of the Gabrielinos, but historians include them under the Gabrielino Tribe.
The Gabrielino proper inhabited what are now southern and eastern Los Angeles county and northern Orange county, as well as the islands of Santa Catalina and San Clemente; they were named after the Franciscan mission San Gabriel Arcángel (and thus have sometimes been called San Gabrielinos).
Contemporary tribe. The earliest ethnological surveys of the Christianized population of the San Gabriel area, who were then known by the Spanish as Gabrielino, were conducted in the mid-19th century.
The Tongva also traded seeds, fish, furs, and animal skins. Sometimes they used money made from discs of clam shells.
Perhaps because living was easy for them, the Gabrielino had time to become skilled in crafts. They decorated the articles that they made with shell inlays, and with carving and painting. On Santa Catalina Island, the Gabrielino had a good supply of steatite, a stone also known as soapstone.
Most Gabrielino people lived in earth homes, which were dome-shaped wooden huts packed with clay and tule reeds.
Lost Treaty Rights And Current Status. The “18 lost treaties” recognized the Tongva but were never adopted. In 1950, under the Eisenhower policy of “Assimilation” of Native American Tribes, the Gabrielino-Tongva were effectively terminated.
A search for Los Angeles County, CA, USA using Native Land’s Territory Acknowledgment tool shows that Los Angeles County sits on Chumash, Tongva, and Kizh land. Learn more about the Chumash, Tongva, and Kizh nations: Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Indians Website. Wishtoyo Chumash Foundation Website.
Located just 10 miles northeast of downtown Los Angeles, Pasadena was first inhabited by the Hahanog-na Indian tribe, who lived in villages scattered along the Arroyo Seco and the canyons from the mountains down to the South Pasadena area.
Today they are known as the Kizh Nation (Gabrieleño Band of Mission Indians). The Kizh Nation itself is based in San Gabriel, California and includes about 500 members.
Around 2,000 Tongva people still live in the Los Angeles area, and they are considered to be one of the two most prominent California tribes without recognition, with 2,800 archaeological sites, such as the sacred site of Puvungna, located on what is now Cal State Long Beach.
Today, the Chumash are estimated to have a population of 5,000 members. Many current members can trace their ancestors to the five islands of Channel Islands National Park.
They ate the flowers and the sweet, yellow-‐tan fruit. They also dried some of the fruit in the sun, ground them into flour, and made cakes. They even ate the grasshoppers that lived in the groves. Mesquite trees also provided firewood, wood for bows and arrows, and fibers to make string.
Katherine Luomola suggests that the “nucleus of later Tipai-Ipai groups” came together around AD 1000. The Kumeyaay themselves believe that they have lived in San Diego for 12,000 years.