The Fox and Sauks are original residents of the eastern woodlands and prairie regions, particularly in Michigan and Wisconsin. Today most Fox and Sauks live on reservations in Oklahoma, Kansas, and Iowa.
Fox, also called Meskwaki or Mesquakie, an Algonquian-speaking tribe of North American Indians who called themselves Meshkwakihug, the “Red-Earth People.” When they first met French traders in 1667, the tribe lived in the forest zone of what is now northeastern Wisconsin.
The Fox tribe lived in two different shelters, the longhouse and the wigwam, a temporary shelter that was used by Algonquian speaking Native Indian tribes who lived in the woodland regions. The Fox longhouses were built from birch bark.
The Sac and Fox tribes lived in Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska. One of the largest villages in North America was Saukenuk, located between the Rock and Mississippi Rivers in Illinois.
The Fox tribe of Native Americans are an Algonquian language-speaking group that are now merged with the allied Sauk tribe as the Sac and Fox Nation.
Iowa’s only federally recognized Indian tribe, the Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa, is known as the Meskwaki Nation, or the “People of the Red Earth.” Our settlement is located in Tama, Iowa, and is comprised of more than 8,624 acres.
The Meskwaki-Sauk language (or Meskawaki, Mesquaki, Fox) is spoken by the Sac and Fox (or Sauk-Fox) people of Oklahoma and the Nemaha Sauks of the Kansas-Nebraska border.
Religious Beliefs. The Fox believed themselves to be the grandchildren of the earth and all that grew on it. Fox supernatural beings included Great or Gentle Manitou, who ruled the upper world. Other important supernatural beings included spirits associated with the four cardinal directions and the earth.
Originally, the Meskwaki predominantly lived in the Saint Lawrence River Valley in Ontario, Canada. Over their history in North America, they have dispersed throughout Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Iowa.
Sac & Fox Casino is owned by Sac and Fox Nation of Missouri in Kansas and Nebraska.
The resulting unrest led to the Black Hawk War (1832; see Black Hawk), after which the Sauk were forced to relinquish more territory. They moved to Iowa, then Kansas, and finally settled in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) at the end of the 19th century.
They held many traditional ceremonies, such as harvest feasts, spiritual and war dances, and equinox and solstice rituals, atypical to many Algonquin tribes. Like most of the regional tribes of the great lakes, the Foxes were polygamists.
Fox (known by a variety of different names, including Mesquakie (Meskwaki), Mesquakie-Sauk, Mesquakie-Sauk-Kickapoo, Sauk-Fox, and Sac and Fox) is an Algonquian language, spoken by a thousand Meskwaki, Sauk, and Kickapoo in various locations in the Midwestern United States and in northern Mexico.
During the summer months (May to September), the Meskwaki lived in villages located along major rivers in the center of tribal lands. Their homes consisted of poles covered with slabs of elm