Nez Perce fishermen used spears and nets to catch fish. Hunters used bows and arrows. In war, Nez Perce men fired their bows and arrows or fought with war spears and leather shields.
45 caliber rifle was used by Joseph for subsistence hunting. Prior to leaving Oklahoma for their new home on the Colville Reservation in Washington, Joseph gave the rifle to the Chilocco Indian School, near the border with Kansas. When the school was closed in 1980, the rifle was given to the Nez Perce Tribe.
The Nez Perce were famous for being excellent horsemen and for breeding fine horses. They are credited with creating the Appaloosa horse breed. There were around 12,000 Nez Perce in 1805, but the population declined to less than 2,000 by the early 1900s.
Before the Nez Percé acquired horses in the early 1700s, they lived in semi-subterranean pit houses covered with branches and earth. The use of horses rapidly changed the lifestyle of the Nez Percé, allowing them to trade with neighboring tribes and make annual trips to the Great Plains to hunt buffalo.
Both sides suffered serious casualties. The soldiers lost 29 men with 40 wounded. The army body count found 89 Nez Perce dead, mostly women and children.
Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce peoples surrenders to U.S. General Nelson A. Miles in the Bear Paw mountains of Montana, declaring, “Hear me, my chiefs: My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever.”
The Native Americans in the reservations also make several profit out of their tribal land, for example they are allowed to rent it to industry and enterprises or private tenants, and they are free to pursue farming, stock-breeding, fishing and hunting.
The Nez Perce and other tribes called their beautiful portable homes “tipis.” You will often see the word spelled tepees or teepees, but the correct spelling is tipi. It means “living place.” Tipis were made from buffalo skins held up by poles.
Chief Joseph’s surrender to General Nelson A. Miles, October 5, 1877. In 1873, Chief Joseph negotiated with the federal government to ensure that his people could stay on their land in the Wallowa Valley as stipulated in 1855 and 1863 land treaties with the U.S. government.
Nez Percé, self-name Nimi’ipuu, North American Indian people whose traditional territory centred on the lower Snake River and such tributaries as the Salmon and Clearwater rivers in what is now northeastern Oregon, southeastern Washington, and central Idaho, U.S. They were the largest, most powerful, and best-known of
The Nez Perce tribe were one of the most numerous and powerful tribes of the Plateau Culture area. They lived a semi-nomadic lifestyle fishing, hunting, or gathering wild plants for food. They lived in pit houses in the winter and and tule-mat lodges in the summer.
The horse brought many changes to the Nez Perces. The people could now travel farther and for longer periods of time, transporting more supplies, trade goods, and provisions, as well as longer tipi poles for larger and roomier portable lodges.
The Battle of Big Hole did not leave the small band of Nez Perce defeated, but they lost about 90 warriors, women and children in the battle. Explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were the tribe’s first contact with Europeans and their dealings with white people had been mostly friendly.
70– 90 killed of whom perhaps thirty were warriors. The Battle of the Big Hole was fought in Montana, August 9–10, 1877, between the U.S. Army and the Nez Perce tribe of Native Americans during the Nez Perce War. Both sides suffered heavy casualties.
On October 5, 1877, Nez Perce leader Chief Joseph formally surrendered his forces to General Nelson A. Miles and General Oliver Otis Howard at Bear Paw Mountain, Montana Territory. This effectively ended the Nez Perce War of 1877.