The weapons used by Apache tribe were originally bows and arrows, stone ball clubs, spears and knives. The rifle was added as their favored weapon with the advent of the white invaders.
They also used the bones of buffalo to make strong tools that sharpened and cut easily. Apaches made tools such as knives and drills from buffalo bone and attached the sharpened tools to wooden handles.
Apache hunted deer, wild turkeys, rabbits, buffalo, bears, mountain lions. There was no fishing. Eagles were hunted for their feathers.
Apache were nomadic hunters and gatherers at that time. For shelter, Apache used tipis, ramadas, and wickiups. Tipis had hide covers. Ramadas were open- air shelters constructed of poles set in the ground and connected by cross poles covered by brush.
The Jumanos hunted with bow and arrow. Spaniards remarked on the strength of their “Turkish” bows (reinforced with sinew). In war, they used clubs, or cudgels, of hardwood. Jumano traders supplied arrows, and perhaps bows as well, from La Junta to the Indians of central and eastern Texas.
Apache boys and girls played games that kept them fit. Archery was an important competition sport, as the bow and arrow was their main weapon. Apache kids also played toe and toss games to develop coordination, balance, and strength. Toe Toss Stick: To play this game, you needed a stick.
They developed the construction and use of the weapon to the highest level with the materials available to them. The bows usually were made from flexible cedar or mulberry wood and the arrows were made of cimarron or another hardwood. The bowstring typically was made from cow sinew.
The chief deity of the Chiricahua Apache was Ussen, whose will governed all. Ussen existed before the creation of the universe. He created the first Mother with no parents who sang four times, a sacred number to the Chiricahua Apache.
As I mentioned not all tribes receive money. He receives money from his Apache tribe, but not from Zuni. Money for tribe’s come in a couple different ways; dividends or gambling revenues. Dividends can come from the government to be distributed to tribes and their members based on the tribes history with government.
For centuries they were fierce warriors, adept in wilderness survival, who carried out raids on those who encroached on their territory. Religion was a fundamental part of Apache life.
Today most of the Apache live on five reservations: three in Arizona (the Fort Apache, the San Carlos Apache, and the Tonto Apache Reservations); and two in New Mexico (the Mescalero and the Jicarilla Apache). About 15,000 Apache Indians live on this reservation.
They’re known as Apaches, and they don’t just live in the United States. They have homes and communities in the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Sonora, northern Durango, Nuevo León and Tamaulipas. That, although in Mexico, Apaches do not officially exist.
What were Tonkawa weapons and tools like in the past? Tonkawa hunters used bows and arrows. In war, Tonkawa men fired their bows or fought with war clubs and hide shields.
The Jumano Nation is alive and well and is primarily composed of all family blood line. There are other Jumanos in the Ojinaga and Julimes areas and still practice the old traditions of the Jumano Indians.
In addition to buffalo meat, the Comanche Indians ate small game like rabbits, fished in the lakes and rivers, and gathered nuts, berries, and wild potatoes.