Indian Nations of Texas Alabama-Coushatta. Anadarko. Apache. Arapaho. Biloxi. Caddo. Cherokee. Cheyenne.
Students identify the four cultures of Native Americans in Texas: Gulf, Southeastern, Plains, and Pueblo.
The names of the Texas tribes included the Apache, Alabama, Atakapa, Biloxi, Caddo, Cherokee, Choctaw, Comanche, Creeks, Koasati, Koroa, Kiowa, Pueblos, Quapaw, Shawnee, Waco, Wichita and Zuni. Some of these tribes migrated to the Great Plains.
The oldest is the Alabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation in Polk County in southeast Texas, where some 650 live. These Creek remnants were forced into Texas from the southern United States and later allied with the cause of Texas independence from Mexico.
There are three federally recognized Indian tribes in Texas today.
In the 21st century, the Comanche Nation has 17,000 members, around 7,000 of whom reside in tribal jurisdictional areas around Lawton, Fort Sill, and the surrounding areas of southwestern Oklahoma.
Unlike most western states, Texas today has almost no Indian lands, the result of systematic warfare by Texas and the United States against indigenious groups in the nineteenth century that decimated tribes or drove them onto reservations in other states.
(See Comanche Nation website.) Other tribes who are known to have had a brief presence in the South Texas Plains were the, Shawnee, Caddo, Kiowa, Kickapoo, and Seminole.
A number of Apache peoples have roots in Texas, but during the prehistoric period they lived in the northern Plains and Canada. As they moved south, they did not settle in the Plateaus and Canyonlands but, rather, in and around the Southern Plains of Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico.
Although Mexico’s war of independence pushed out Spain in 1821, Texas did not remain a Mexican possession for long. It became its own country, called the Republic of Texas, from 1836 until it agreed to join the United States in 1845.