The Shoshone Bannock tribes like to eat deer, elk, buffalo, moose, sheep, and antelope. They also like to eat salmon, trout, sturgeon, and perch. They gather berries, nuts, and seeds, they also gather roots such as bitterroot, and camas.
The Northern Shoshone occasionally hunted buffalo, but relied more on salmon fishing, deer, and small game, as well as roots gathered by the women. The Western Shoshone had a more plant-based diet, particularly pine nuts, roots, and seeds, and also hunted antelopes and rabbits.
In the early autumn, the Northwestern Shoshones moved into the region near what is now Salmon, Idaho, to fish. After fishing was over, they moved into western Wyoming to hunt buffalo, elk, deer, moose, and antelope. They sun-dried the meat for winter and used the hides as clothing and shelter.
When settlers began coming into the Shoshone territory, their traditional food sources became scarce. They learned from the settlers and began to farm and irrigate the land in order to grow their own food. They grew pumpkins, squash, corn, wheat, barley and other crops.
In Shoshone’s language, behne is a way to greet people and say hello in a friendly way. The Shoshoni language belongs to the group of Numic languages,
Cooking involved roasting of game on an open fire, drying of meat for winter and boiling of vegetables in water-tight baskets. Simple tools such as stone knives, scrapers, grinding stones and baskets could be easily carried or left behind when necessary.
The Navajo were farmers who grew the three main crops that many Native Americans grew: corn, beans, and squash. After the Spanish arrived in the 1600s, the Navajo began to farm sheep and goats as well, with sheep becoming a major source of meat. They also hunted animals for food like deer and rabbits.
The Eastern Shoshone are known for their Plains horse culture. They acquired the horse in 1700 and it completely changed their lifestyles. They became proficient hunters thus they became fierce warriors.
All Apaches relied primarily on hunting of wild game and gathering of cactus fruits and other wild plant foods. Hunting was a part of daily life and provided food, clothing, shelter, and blankets. The Apache hunted deer, wild turkeys, jackrabbits, coyote, javelin, fox, beavers, buffalo, bears, and mountain lions.
The Iroquois ate a variety of foods. They grew crops such as corn, beans, and squash. These three main crops were called the “Three Sisters” and were usually grown together. Women generally farmed the fields and cooked the meals.
The name “Shoshone” comes from Sosoni, a Shoshone word for high-growing grasses. Shoshones call themselves Newe, meaning “People.” Meriwether Lewis recorded the tribe as the “Sosonees or snake Indians” in 1805.
The Shoshone, it seems, traded with everyone, including northwest and southwest tribes. Other Rocky Mountain and central Plains tribes also took goods to the Missouri River valley to trade for corn, pumpkin, squash and native-grown tobacco (Nicotiana quadrivalvis, Pursh).
Their enemies were the Blackfeet, Atsani, and the Hidsastas. They had many things that the Shoshone didn’t such as rifles. They forced the Shoshone away from the plains and the great buffalo hunting up in the mountains. The Shoshone also was the key to success to the Lewis and Clark expedition.
Today, the Shoshone’s approximately 10,000 members primarily live on several reservations in Wyoming, Idaho, and Nevada, the largest of which is the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming.