In the early 19th century, Caddo people were forced to a reservation in Texas; they were removed to Indian Territory in 1859. Today, the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma is a federally recognized tribe with its capital at Binger, Oklahoma.
1840s-1850s. The Hasinai, Natchitoches, and Kadohadacho were forcibly pushed out of East Texas by Anglo settlers. Some moved into Indian Territory, while others traveled west into the upper Brazos River drainage. This was the final and bitter end to the Caddo settlement of their traditional homelands.
Where do the Caddo Indians live? The Caddos are original residents of the southern Plains, particularly Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas and Louisiana. Most Caddo people today live in Oklahoma.
The Caddo peoples continue to live in western Oklahoma, primarily in Caddo County near the Caddo Indian Tribe’s Tribal Complex, outside Binger, Oklahoma. Please donate and support the Handbook of Texas.
There are scattered reports of ceremonial human sacrifice and cannibalism; these and other traits probably indicate trade or other links between the Caddo and the centres of Aztec or Mayan cultures in Mexico and Yucatán.
The Caddo Indians, a tribe of Native Americans, were the original inhabitants of northwest Louisiana. During the Civil War, Shreveport would serve as the capitol of Louisiana when Baton Rouge fell to Union forces. The last surrender of Confederate forces occurred here on June 6, 1865.
The Europeans carried infections such as smallpox and measles, because these were endemic in their societies. As the Caddo peoples had no acquired immunity to such new diseases, they suffered epidemics with high fatalities that decimated the tribal populations.
A dome-shaped grass house. For hundreds of years, the Caddo Indians built huge dome-shaped houses, temples, and other structures without using modern equipment or tools! They had no chainsaws or metal axes to cut down the tall pine trees from the forests.
The Caddo is thought to have lived in this area of the south as early as 200 BC, and by the year 800 had begun to coalesce into the Caddoan Mississippian culture with some villages gaining prominence as ritual centers who built major earthworks, which served as temple mounds, platforms for residences of the elite, and
Throughout the year, members of the tribe gather for festivals and celebrations on important occasions. The women and young girls wear bright costumes with colorful ribbons. Stepping in time to the rhythm of the Caddo drummers, they dance the traditional dances taught to them by their mothers, aunts, and grandmothers.
They lived in tall, grass-covered houses in large settlements with highly structured social, religious and political systems. The Caddos raised corn, beans, squash and other crops. They also hunted the bear and deer of East Texas and headed west for annual buffalo hunts.
What is certain is that by the time France established an outpost at Natchitoches in 1714, the Caddo had already suffered drastic population loss resulting from the introduction of European pathogens such as influenza and smallpox, to which they had no immunities.
The Caddo originated in the lower Mississippi Valley and spread west along the river systems. Sometime between 700 and 800 they settled the area between the Arkansas River and the middle reaches of the Red, Sabine, Angelina, and Neches rivers and adopted agriculture.
The Caddo Native Indians were known to be a friendly tribe, interested in trading with almost anyone. Their enemies were the Sioux and the Osage tribes to the North. The weapons used by the Caddo included axes, war clubs, maces, knives, pikes and bows and arrows, commonly made of bois de arc wood.
Caddo Ritual and Religion. In the late 17th century the Hasinai were said to believe in a supreme god called the Caddi Ayo or Ayo-Caddi-Aymay, sometimes translated as “captain of the sky.” The Caddi Ayo was believed to be the creator of all things and was held in great deference.