The Tonkawa wore little clothing, except as protection against the cold. Men frequently wore long loincloths or leggings and skin shirts. Men also wore bone, shell and feather earrings and necklaces. The women wore short shirts made of deer or bison skin and little else.
The Tonkawa had a distinct language, and their name, as that of the leading tribe, was applied to their linguistic family. They were one of the most warlike tribes during nearly two centuries of conflict with their enemy tribes on the Western plains and with the Spanish and, later, American settlers in the Southwest.
They ate most kinds of small game, fish and shellfish. They excepted the coyote and wolf from their diet for religious reasons. They collected nuts (especially pecans), herbs, acorns and fruits to supplement their meats. They even attempted some farming in the latter part of the eighteenth century.
Artists from the Tonkawa tribe are known for crafting beautiful hide paintings and copper jewelry. 3. The Tonkawas traded many times with tribes of the Southern Plains & the Southwest Plains. They enjoyed traded items made of buffalo with tribes such as the Caddo and Pueblo Indians.
Social organization was simple. They had no clan system. Kiowas and Kiowa Apaches belonged to the same type of kinship system as the Cheyennes, known as the generation or classification type, where collateral and lineal relations are classed together.
In the 21st century, the Comanche Nation has 17,000 members, around 7,000 of whom reside in tribal jurisdictional areas around Lawton, Fort Sill, and the surrounding areas of southwestern Oklahoma.
The Karankawa have been described for centuries as ” cannibals,” now believed by many to be a falsehood initially perpetuated by the Spanish after they failed to convert them to Catholicism at missionary settlements in La Bahía and Refugio.
They were a matrilineal society of extended family clans forming two moieties, whose leaders where eventually replaced by a single chief. Their religion was a mixture of beliefs, but they resisted Christianity. Because of their horsemanship and fighting spirit, Tonkawa warriors served as U.S. Army scouts.
The name Tonkawa is a Waco term meaning “they all stay together.” Traditionally, the Tonkawas have been regarded as an old Texas tribe, but new evidence suggests that the Tonkawas migrated from the high plains as late as the seventeenth century.
Tonkawa men hunted buffalo and deer and sometimes fished in the rivers. The Tonkawas also collected roots, nuts, and fruit to eat. Though the Tonkawas were not farmers, corn was also part of their diet. They got corn by trading with neighboring tribes.
The Tonkawa tried to follow this counsel. Food Preparation: Most meat was cooked by roasting; however, some of it was cured by the women. Dried venison or bison meat was pounded and mixed with pecan meal to form pemmican, the principal food of the Tonkawa when they were traveling or on the warpath.
1: a member of a group of American Indian peoples of the southwestern U.S. 2: any of the Athabascan languages of the Apache people. 3 not capitalized [French, from Apache Apache Indian] a: a member of a gang of criminals especially in Paris.
The Jicarilla Apache were just one of six southern Athapascan groups that migrated out of Canada sometime around 1300 to 1500 A.D. Moving their way south, they settled in the southwest where their traditional homeland covered more than 50 million acres across north New Mexico, southern Colorado and western Oklahoma.
Karankawa, several groups of North American Indians that lived along the Gulf of Mexico in Texas, from about Galveston Bay to Corpus Christi Bay.
The Karankawa Indians were a group of now-extinct tribes who lived along the Gulf of Mexico in what is today Texas. Archaeologists have traced the Karankawas back at least 2,000 years. The tribes were nomadic, ranging from Galveston Bay to Corpus Christi Bay and as far as 100 miles (160 km) inland.