The people who are considered to be part of the ” Hopewell culture ” built massive earthworks and numerous mounds while crafting fine works of art whose meaning often eludes modern archaeologists. This ” Hopewell culture ” flourished between roughly A.D. 1 and A.D. 500.
What language did the Hopewell speak? Around the borders of Muskogean, clockwise from southwest to southeast, there were speakers of the “Gulf” languages, the Caddoan, Siouan, and Iroquoian language families, and the little-known languages of South Florida.
In their eating habits, the Hopewell fit between hunter-gatherers and farmers. The Hopewell may have grown some plants, but they were not a full-time farming people. They ate nuts, squash, and the seeds from several plants. Hopewell people also ate wild animals, birds, and fish.
The name ” Hopewell ” was applied by Warren K. Moorehead after his explorations in 1891 and 1892 of the Hopewell Mound Group in Ross County, Ohio. The mound group was named after Mordecai Hopewell, whose family then owned the property where the earthworks are sited.
According to archaeological investigations, Adena earthworks were often built as part of their burial rituals, in which the earth of the earthwork was piled immediately atop a burned mortuary building. These mortuary buildings were intended to keep and maintain the dead until their final burial was performed.
Adena Religion Many pieces of art seemed to revolve around shamanic beliefs. Also the transformation of humans into animals (particularly birds, wolves, bears and deer) and back to human form. This concludes that there may be a chance the Adena practiced Shamanism.
English (East Midlands): habitational name from Hopwell in Derbyshire, named with Old English hop ‘valley’ + well(a) ‘spring’, ‘stream’.
of an Early Woodlands society in the last millennium B.C.E. The economy was based on hunting and fishing, and from 100 B.C.E. apparently also on the growing of squash, pumpkin, sunflowers, goosefoot and marsh elder.
Corn became more important and the bow and arrow were introduced. Some archaeologists characterize the end of the Hopewell as a cultural collapse because of the abandonment of the monumental architecture and the diminishing importance of ritual, art, and trade.
Cahokia was first occupied in ad 700 and flourished for approximately four centuries (c. 950–1350). It reached a peak population of as many as 20,000 individuals and was the most extensive urban centre in prehistoric America north of Mexico and the primary centre of the Middle Mississippian culture.
With what materials and for what purpose did the Hopewell and Adena peoples make mounds? They used clay and dirt to build large mounds, which served as temples, burial grounds, and defensive structures.
Built around 1050 A.D. and occupied through 1400 A.D., Cahokia had a peak population of between 25,000 and 50,000 people.
Cahokia Mounds was first protected by the state of Illinois in 1923 when its legislature authorized purchase of a state park.
It is an effigy mound (a mound in the shape of an animal) representing a snake with a curled tail. Nearby are three burial mounds—two created by the Adena culture (800 B.C.–A.D. 100), and one by the Fort Ancient culture (A.D. 1000–1650).
Best known for large, man-made earthen structures, the city of Cahokia was inhabited from about A.D. 700 to 1400. Built by ancient peoples known as the Mound Builders, Cahokia’s original population was thought to have been only about 1,000 until about the 11th century when it expanded to tens of thousands.