Like the other Indian nations of the Northwest Coast, the Tillamook had permanent villages which consisted of several houses, a women’s house, sweathouses, and a graveyard containing raised canoe burials. Tillamook houses were rectangular and constructed from horizontal cedar planks.
During the summer the women wore long grass skirts and grass capes around their shoulders that tied around their necks. The Tillamook women created these articles of clothing with cedar bark and long grass. When winter came the women wore buckskin hide dresses and skirts, with woven basket hats.
The Pacific Ocean was the main source of food for the people, and, therefore, the men spent a lot of time fishing along the coast. Pacific Salmon was abundant in the waters, and became the most important food resource of the people.
Weapons included hunting equipment as well as elk hide armor. The Tillamook painted themselves for war with red and black stripes. Their enemies may have included the Chinook and the Kalapuyans. Slave raiding may have been a primary object of war.
In the case of the Tillamook Nation, which includes the Nehalem and Nestucca tribes, the primary language spoken was Salish. “The men spoke Salish,” said Beach, “but the women tended to be bilingual or trilingual, because they were from somewhere else.”
Location The Tillamook traditionally lived along a coastal strip from roughly Tillamook Head to the Siletz River, in present-day Oregon. Population The Tillamook population stood at about 2,200 in 1805. In 1950 it was under 250. In 1990 roughly 50 Tillamook descendants lived in and around Oregon.
The Powhatan Indian lands encompassed all of the tidewater Virginia area, from the south side of the James River north to the Potomac River, and parts of the Eastern Shore, an area they called Tsenacommacah. Its span was approximately 100 miles by 100 miles.
Arapaho, North American Indian tribe of Algonquian linguistic stock who lived during the 19th century along the Platte and Arkansas rivers of what are now the U.S. states of Wyoming, Colorado, Nebraska, and Kansas.
The Tillamook travelled north to the Columbia River where they traded for abalone shell, dentalia, buffalo hides and buffalo horn dishes, and for dried Columbia River salmon. The Tualatin Kalapuya often travelled into Tillamook country to trade and intermarriage between the two tribes was common.
Eating well is fundamental to good health and well-being. Healthy eating helps us to maintain a healthy weight and reduces our risk of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and some cancers.
The food that the Pawnee tribe ate included the crops they raised of corn, sunflower seeds, pumpkins and squash. The food from their crops was supplemented by meat, especially buffalo, that was acquired on their seasonal hunting trips. The meats also included deer, elk, bear and wild turkey.
Totem poles are monuments created by First Nations of the Pacific Northwest to represent and commemorate ancestry, histories, people, or events. Totem poles would not necessarily tell a story so much as it would serve to document stories and histories familiar to community members or particular family or clan members.
The Apache dominated much of northern Mexico, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas for hundreds of years. It is estimated that about 5,000 Apache lived in the Southwest in 1680 AD. Some Apache lived in the mountains, while others lived on the plains.
The airy settlement that we explored had been built by the Anasazi, a civilization that arose as early as 1500 B.C. Their descendants are today’s Pueblo Indians, such as the Hopi and the Zuni, who live in 20 communities along the Rio Grande, in New Mexico, and in northern Arizona.
The Chinook Indians, relatives to the Clatsop tribe, lived in the Northwest along the banks of the Columbia River and the coast of the Pacific Ocean. The Chinooks were superb canoe builders and navigators, masterful traders, skillful fishermen and planters.