The people who are considered to be part of the ” Hopewell culture ” built massive earthworks and numerous mounds while crafting fine works of art whose meaning often eludes modern archaeologists. This ” Hopewell culture ” flourished between roughly A.D. 1 and A.D. 500.
Hopewell culture, notable ancient Indian culture of the east-central area of North America. It flourished from about 200 bce to 500 ce chiefly in what is now southern Ohio, with related groups in Michigan, Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Pennsylvania, and New York.
Cultural decline Around 500 CE, the Hopewell exchange ceased, mound building stopped, and art forms were no longer produced. War is a possible cause, as villages dating to the Late Woodland period shifted to larger communities; they built defensive fortifications of palisade walls and ditches.
What language did the Hopewell speak? Around the borders of Muskogean, clockwise from southwest to southeast, there were speakers of the “Gulf” languages, the Caddoan, Siouan, and Iroquoian language families, and the little-known languages of South Florida.
In their eating habits, the Hopewell fit between hunter-gatherers and farmers. The Hopewell may have grown some plants, but they were not a full-time farming people. They ate nuts, squash, and the seeds from several plants. Hopewell people also ate wild animals, birds, and fish.
Corn became more important and the bow and arrow were introduced. Some archaeologists characterize the end of the Hopewell as a cultural collapse because of the abandonment of the monumental architecture and the diminishing importance of ritual, art, and trade.
English (East Midlands): habitational name from Hopwell in Derbyshire, named with Old English hop ‘valley’ + well(a) ‘spring’, ‘stream’.
According to archaeological investigations, Adena earthworks were often built as part of their burial rituals, in which the earth of the earthwork was piled immediately atop a burned mortuary building. These mortuary buildings were intended to keep and maintain the dead until their final burial was performed.
It is an effigy mound (a mound in the shape of an animal) representing a snake with a curled tail. Nearby are three burial mounds—two created by the Adena culture (800 B.C.–A.D. 100), and one by the Fort Ancient culture (A.D. 1000–1650).
In Arkansas and elsewhere in eastern North America, Native Americans built earthen mounds for ritual or burial purposes or as the location for important structures, but mound – building ceased shortly after European contact due to changes in religious and other cultural practices.
Two thousand years ago, people of an advanced culture gathered here to conduct religious rituals and ceremonies related to their society. At this site, they built an enormous earthwork complex spanning about 130 acres.
The Adena people were hunter-gatherers, but also grew various crops, including squash, sunflower, pumpkin, goosefoot, and tobacco. They lived in extended family groups of roughly 15 to 20 people, with several extended families forming a lineage or clan. Between four to six of these clans made up an Adena social group.
of an Early Woodlands society in the last millennium B.C.E. The economy was based on hunting and fishing, and from 100 B.C.E. apparently also on the growing of squash, pumpkin, sunflowers, goosefoot and marsh elder.
Built around 1050 A.D. and occupied through 1400 A.D., Cahokia had a peak population of between 25,000 and 50,000 people.
Cahokia was the largest city ever built north of Mexico before Columbus and boasted 120 earthen mounds. Many were massive, square-bottomed, flat-topped pyramids — great pedestals atop which civic leaders lived. At the vast plaza in the city’s center rose the largest earthwork in the Americas, the 100-foot Monks Mound.