Pend d’ Oreille is also unofficially the name of the valley between Nelway and Waneta. The name literally means “earloop” or “hangs from ears” in French and was given by voyageurs after members of the Kalispel Tribe who wore dangling shell or bone earrings.
The Pend d’Oreille, also known as the Kalispel, are Indigenous peoples of the Northwest Plateau. Today many of them live in Montana and eastern Washington. The Kalispel peoples referred to their primary tribal range as Kaniksu.
Most lived on the Flathead Reservation (formally the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation) in western Montana, the fourth largest reservation within the United States.
The Kootenai people lived along the Kootenai River in Idaho, Montana, and British Columbia. They were hunter-gatherers, and salmon was an important staple to their diets. They have permanent winter villages of cone-shaped houses made from wooden poles and rush mats.
Because the Corps manages the dam at Albeni Falls, it is responsible for raising and lowering the water level within the top 11.5 feet of Lake Pend Oreille. Through October and the first half of November, the lake will slowly drop to about winter elevation: 2,051 to 2,051.5 feet.
Lake Pend Oreille was glacially formed during the ice age. It is also believed that the eastern side of the lake was in the path of the ancient Missoula Flood. The lake sits at the south end of the Purcell Trench, carved by glaciers moving south from Canada.
While camas was the most important plant food, the Kalispel also gathered Indian potato, cattail roots, wild garlic, wild celery, wild carrot, Easter lily, and bitterroot. A wide variety of berries were also harvested.
Parts of Lake Pend Oreille freeze in some winters. Generally the bays and coves, not the main part of the lake itself.
Lake Pend Oreille (pond oh-RAY).
The Pine Ridge Reservation is home to the lowest life expectancy, and a number of the poorest communities in the United States. The average life expectancy on Pine Ridge is 66.81 years, the lowest in the United States. There are 3,143 counties in the United States.
The Augustine Band of Cahuilla Indians is a federally recognized Cahuilla band of Native Americans based in Coachella, California. They are one of the smallest tribal nations in the United States, consisting of only eight members, only one of whom is an adult.
When Europeans first came to North Carolina, the Chowan Tribe was strong and well known. They signed a treaty with the settlers that they would obey the queen of England. Later, when war broke out between some American Indians and settlers, other tribes encouraged the Chowanoc to break their treaty.
The Kutenai language (/ˈkuːtəneɪ, -i/), also Kootenai, Kootenay, Ktunaxa, and Ksanka, is the native language of the Kutenai people of Montana and Idaho in the United States and British Columbia in Canada.
There are approximately 326 Indian land areas in the U.S. administered as federal Indian reservations (i.e., reservations, pueblos, rancherias, missions, villages, communities, etc.). The largest is the 16 million-acre Navajo Nation Reservation located in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah.
Kootenai (KOO-tun-ee), the name of another Native American people, is a county in North Idaho.