The Otoe – Missouria hunted bison, gathered plants, and grew corn, beans, pumpkins, and squash. They believed in Wakanda, a universal spirit. Their population was an estimated fifteen hundred in 1830 and 358 in 1890.
The Otoe, led by Chief Little Thief and Chief Big Horse, and the chiefs of the Missouria tribes, Chief Crow’s Head and Chief Black Cat, were the first Native Indians that Lewis and Clark parleyed with in the West.
Chiwere (also called Iowa- Otoe-Missouria or Báxoje-Jíwere-Ñút’achi) is a Siouan language originally spoken by the Missouria, Otoe, and Iowa peoples, who originated in the Great Lakes region but later moved throughout the Midwest and plains. The language is closely related to Ho-Chunk, also known as Winnebago.
The Omaha, Pawnee and Ponca tribes were on their buffalo hunts during this time, so they did not meet Lewis and Clark. The Fur Trade The Otoe -Missouria played an important role in the fur trade as the trading post at Bellevue resided in their territory.
Otoe – a member of the Siouan people inhabiting the valleys of the Platte and Missouri rivers in Nebraska. Oto. Siouan, Sioux – a member of a group of North American Indian peoples who spoke a Siouan language and who ranged from Lake Michigan to the Rocky Mountains.
The Otoe – Missouria Tribe of Indians is a single, federally recognized tribe, located in Oklahoma. The tribe is made up of Otoe and Missouria Indians. Traditionally they spoke the Chiwere language, part of the Siouan language family.
Like other Great Plains tribes, the Otoe periodically left their villages to hunt for bison. In 1854 the Otoe -Missouria ceded most of their lands south of the Platte River in eastern Nebraska to the U.S. by treaty. They retained the Oto Reservation along the Big Blue River on the present Kansas-Nebraska border.
What clothes did the Missouria tribe wear? The men of the Missouria tribe wore a variety of clothes including a blue or red belted breechcloths, deerskin leggings, and sometimes a blanket robe over the upper part of the body. Buffalo hides were also worn as cloaks and moccasins were worn during the winter.
The Chinook Indians, relatives to the Clatsop tribe, lived in the Northwest along the banks of the Columbia River and the coast of the Pacific Ocean. The Chinooks were superb canoe builders and navigators, masterful traders, skillful fishermen and planters.
There is one federally recognized Indian tribe in Iowa today.
What term did Lewis use to address the Otoe? What does that suggest about how he viewed them? He called them red men. That suggests he didn’t view them the same as himself.