According to “Native Americans Meet the Challenges,” by the 1850s the Pawnee, Omaha, Oto -Missouri, Ponca, Lakota, and Cheyenne were the main Great Plains tribes living in the Nebraska Territory. During the 19th century, eight Indian reservations were established, six of which have reservations within Nebraska today.
The resulting confederacy, whose governing Great Council of 50 peace chiefs, or sachems (hodiyahnehsonh), still meets in a longhouse, is made up of six nations: the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, and Tuscarora.
Nehawka – An approximation to the Omaha and Otoe Indian name of a nearby creek meaning “rustling water.” Nemaha – Named after the Nemaha River, based on an Otoe word meaning “swampy water.” Niobrara – The Omaha and Ponca word for spreading water or spreading river.
There are eight (8) state-recognized tribes located in North Carolina: the Coharie, the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, the Haliwa-Saponi, the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina, the Meherrin, the Sappony, the Occaneechi Band of the Saponi Nation and the Waccamaw Siouan.
Today six tribes, (Omaha, Winnebago, Ponca, Iowa, Santee Sioux, Sac and Fox), have reservations in Nebraska. In 2006 American Indian and Alaska Native persons comprised one percent of the state’s population.
Nebraska’s name is the result of anglicization of the archaic Otoe words Ñí Brásge, pronounced [ɲĩbɾasꜜkɛ] (contemporary Otoe Ñí Bráhge), or the Omaha Ní Btháska, pronounced [nĩbɫᶞasꜜka], meaning “flat water”, after the Platte River which flows through the state.
Today, the Shakopee Mdewakanton are believed to be the richest tribe in American history as measured by individual personal wealth: Each adult, according to court records and confirmed by one tribal member, receives a monthly payment of around $84,000, or $1.08 million a year.
Allen, South Dakota, on the Pine Ridge Reservation, has the lowest per capita income in the country. Poverty rates on the ten largest reservations.
|Reservation||Cheyenne River Indian Reservation|
|Poverty Rate (Families with Children)||42.3|
|Poverty Rate (Individuals)||38.5|
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Quahadis were the hardest, fiercest, least yielding component of a tribe that had long had the reputation as the most violent and warlike on the continent; if they ran low on water, they were known to drink the contents of a dead horse’s stomach, something even the toughest Texas Ranger would not do.
1. Omaha (population 446,970): Omahans.
The Omaha ( Omaha -Ponca: Umoⁿhoⁿ) are a federally recognized Midwestern Native American tribe who reside on the Omaha Reservation in northeastern Nebraska and western Iowa, United States. About 1770, the Omaha became the first tribe on the Northern Plains to adopt equestrian culture.
ō’mə-hô’, -hä’ Filters. A member of a Native American people inhabiting northeast Nebraska since the late 1600s. The Omaha are closely related to the Ponca in language and history.
What is the correct terminology: American Indian, Indian, Native American, or Native? All of these terms are acceptable. The consensus, however, is that whenever possible, Native people prefer to be called by their specific tribal name.
They are known to us today as the Wendat (also known as Huron,) Neutral-Wenro, Erie, Laurentian (or St. Lawrence Iroquoian,) Susquehannock, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk, Tuscarora, Nottaway, and Cherokee.
The Clovis culture, the earliest definitively-dated Paleo-Indians in the Americas, appears around 11,500 RCBP (radiocarbon years Before Present), equivalent to 13,500 to 13,000 calendar years ago.