The Hopi Indians are the oldest Native American tribe in the World. Just like the Ancient Egyptians and Ancient Mayans, they trace the roots of their culture back to the lost civilization of Atlantis.
The US Census groups these peoples as “Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander.” The ancestors of living Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago, possibly much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples, societies and cultures subsequently developed.
It is not known when the first people arrived in the Americas. Some archaeologists (scientists who study the remains of past human lives) believe it might have been about 12000 BC.
The resulting confederacy, whose governing Great Council of 50 peace chiefs, or sachems (hodiyahnehsonh), still meets in a longhouse, is made up of six nations: the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, and Tuscarora.
The consensus, however, is that whenever possible, Native people prefer to be called by their specific tribal name. In the United States, Native American has been widely used but is falling out of favor with some groups, and the terms American Indian or indigenous American are preferred by many Native people.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs uses a blood quantum definition—generally one-fourth Native American blood —and/or tribal membership to recognize an individual as Native American. However, each tribe has its own set of requirements—generally including a blood quantum—for membership (enrollment) of individuals.
According to an autosomal genetic study from 2012, Native Americans descend from at least three main migrant waves from East Asia. Most of it is traced back to a single ancestral population, called ‘First Americans’.
The word Indian came to be used because Christopher Columbus repeatedly expressed the mistaken belief that he had reached the shores of South Asia. Convinced he was correct, Columbus fostered the use of the term Indios (originally, “person from the Indus valley”) to refer to the peoples of the so- called New World.
Turtle Island is a name for the Earth or for North America, used by some Indigenous Peoples in the United States and First Nations people and by some Indigenous rights activists.
All Indians are subject to federal income taxes. However, whenever a member of an Indian tribe conducts business off the reservation, that person, like everyone else, pays both state and local taxes. State income taxes are not paid on reservation or trust lands.
The New York metropolitan area comprises the largest population of Indian Americans among U.S. metropolitan areas. Indian Americans continuously enjoy higher socioeconomic status than any other ethnic group in the U.S.
Quahadis were the hardest, fiercest, least yielding component of a tribe that had long had the reputation as the most violent and warlike on the continent; if they ran low on water, they were known to drink the contents of a dead horse’s stomach, something even the toughest Texas Ranger would not do.
Today, the Shakopee Mdewakanton are believed to be the richest tribe in American history as measured by individual personal wealth: Each adult, according to court records and confirmed by one tribal member, receives a monthly payment of around $84,000, or $1.08 million a year.
Allen, South Dakota, on the Pine Ridge Reservation, has the lowest per capita income in the country. Poverty rates on the ten largest reservations.
|Reservation||Cheyenne River Indian Reservation|
|Poverty Rate (Families with Children)||42.3|
|Poverty Rate (Individuals)||38.5|
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Contents The Arctic. The Subarctic. The Northeast. The Southeast. The Plains. The Southwest. The Great Basin. California.