In the early 19th century, Caddo people were forced to a reservation in Texas; they were removed to Indian Territory in 1859. Today, the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma is a federally recognized tribe with its capital at Binger, Oklahoma.
The Caddo originated in the lower Mississippi Valley and spread west along the river systems. Sometime between 700 and 800 they settled the area between the Arkansas River and the middle reaches of the Red, Sabine, Angelina, and Neches rivers and adopted agriculture.
Indian Nations of Texas Alabama-Coushatta. Anadarko. Apache. Arapaho. Biloxi. Caddo. Cherokee. Cheyenne.
The Aztec, Maya, and Inca were very advanced. The had been empires prior to European contact. Teotihuacan was larger and earlier than Cahokia.
Today, the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma is a federally recognized tribe with its capital at Binger, Oklahoma. The several Caddo dialects have converged into a single language. Today, there are nearly 5,000 enrolled members of the nation.
The Louisiana Caddo moved southwest to join others of the tribe in Texas. There they lived peaceably for a time, but in 1859 threats of a massacre by a vigilante anti-Indian group forced them to flee to east-central Oklahoma, where they settled on a reservation on the banks of the Washita River.
Caddo Indian Language (Hatsinai) Caddo is a Caddoan language of the Southern Plains. Only a few dozen speakers remain, mostly elders in Texas and Oklahoma, but the tribe is working to teach the youngest generation of Caddo Indians their ancestral language again.
They lived in tall, grass-covered houses in large settlements with highly structured social, religious and political systems. The Caddos raised corn, beans, squash and other crops. They also hunted the bear and deer of East Texas and headed west for annual buffalo hunts.
Students identify the four cultures of Native Americans in Texas: Gulf, Southeastern, Plains, and Pueblo.
American Indians in Texas Today Only three federally recognized tribes still have reservations in Texas, the Alabama-Coushatta, Tigua, and Kickapoo. The state recognized Lipan Apache Tribe of Texas has its headquarters in McAllen. The Caddo, Comanche, and Tonkawa are officially headquartered in Oklahoma.
|Tribal group||Total||American Indian/Alaska Native alone|
|American Indian tribes|
Today, the Shakopee Mdewakanton are believed to be the richest tribe in American history as measured by individual personal wealth: Each adult, according to court records and confirmed by one tribal member, receives a monthly payment of around $84,000, or $1.08 million a year.
The practice was most common among eastern Woodland Indians and tribesmen of the Plains. The farther west you moved, the rarer it became. Warriors of the Great Plains decorated their bridles, lances and shields with scalp locks raised from the enemies.
Allen, South Dakota, on the Pine Ridge Reservation, has the lowest per capita income in the country. Extreme poverty rates on the ten largest reservations.
|Reservation||Location||Extreme Poverty Rate|
|Standing Rock Indian Reservation||South Dakota and North Dakota||16.6|