While chiefdoms are societies in which everyone is ranked relative to the chief, states are socially stratified into largely distinct classes in terms of wealth, power, and prestige.
How do bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states ” evolve “? they evolved over time to adapt to the changed in the environment or because of new inventions or technology.
Force is simply embedded in structural relations, and through the introduction of slaves, uneven growth in access to land and other resources, and the gradual mo- nopolization of the legitimate use of violence, chiefdoms become states.
Within general theories of cultural evolution, chiefdoms are characterized by permanent and institutionalized forms of political leadership (the chief), centralized decision-making, economic interdependence, and social hierarchy.
Anthropologists generally recognize four kinds of political systems, two of which are uncentralized and two of which are centralized. Uncentralized systems. Band society. Centralized governments. Chiefdom. Supranational political systems. Empires. Leagues.
A band is the smallest unit of political organization, consisting of only a few families and no formal leadership positions. Tribes have larger populations but are organized around family ties and have fluid or shifting systems of temporary leadership.
The cultural anthropologist Elman Service devised a model in 1962 for classifying human societies into four general categories— bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states —based on their capacity to support larger populations at higher densities.
Tribes have a variety of mechanisms for controlling behavior and settling conflicts. Compensation is a payment demanded to compensate for damage. Mediation aims to resolve disputes so that the prior social relationship between the disputants is maintained and harmony is restored.
Bands are essentially associations of families living together. They are loosely allied by marriage, descent, friendship, and common interest. The primary integrating mechanism for these societies is kinship. Bands are extremely egalitarian–all families are essentially equal.
Chiefdom, in anthropology, a notional form of sociopolitical organization in which political and economic power is exercised by a single person (or group of persons) over many communities.
Chiefdoms incorporated multiple hamlets, villages, and possibly small cities into one political unit. Occupational specialization, where people have different jobs within the society and are reliant on others for some of the goods they consume, becomes prevalent within chiefdoms. Kin groups inhabited the villages.
Typically, the term means that the state has been rendered ineffective and is not able to enforce its laws uniformly or provide basic goods and services to its citizens because of (variously) high crime rates, insurgency, extreme political corruption, an impenetrable and ineffective bureaucracy, judicial
The Gond comprise the largest tribal group of India with a population exceeding 12 million. Linguistically, the Gond belong to the Gondi–Manda subgroup of the South Central branch of the Dravidian language family.
Each chiefdom is an autonomous, territorial, as well as socio-political unit headed by a paramount chief who is traditionally chosen from one of the ruling houses, that is one of the descent groups whose ancestors are reputed to have founded the chiefdom.
A common definition for a tribe is a group of people that all have common ancestry, or a common ancestor, a common culture, and live in their own enclosed society. Other names for a tribe are a clan, which is used in some European countries, and family.