For their part, the Lumbee have a complex racial history, and according to Mark Miller, a history professor at Southern Utah University, many view the Lumbee as a “mixed race, mainly African group.”
Lumbee Indians are recognized as the largest-known Native American tribe in North Carolina, the largest tribe east of the Mississippi River and the ninth-largest tribe in the nation. The Lumbee take their name from the Lumber River, which winds its way through Robeson County.
Lumbee is pronounced LUM-bee (“lum” rhymes with “gum,”) and it comes from the Lumber River, which runs through the Lumbee homeland. Many people believe that the river’s name comes from a Carolina Algonquian language, and may have meant “dark water” (umpe meant “water” in the Pamlico dialect.)
The closing decades of the twentieth century have witnessed a burgeoning of Native American flags without precedent in the history of native communities anywhere in the world and equally unparalleled in the history of flags.
The Lumbee Tribe is the largest tribe in North Carolina, the largest tribe east of the Mississippi River and the ninth largest in the nation. The Lumbee take their name from the Lumbee River which winds its way through Robeson County. Pembroke, North Carolina is the economic, cultural and political center of the tribe.
These include the Chowanoke, Croatoan, Hatteras, Moratoc, Secotan, Weapemeoc, Machapunga, Pamlico, Coree, Neuse River, Tuscarora, Meherrin, Cherokee, Cape Fear, Catawba, Shakori, Sissipahaw, Sugeree, Waccamaw, Waxhaw, Woccon, Cheraw, Eno, Keyauwee, Occaneechi, Saponi, and Tutelo Indians.
The Lumbee are descended from several Carolina tribes, including the Cheraw, who intermarried with whites and free African Americans in the 18th and 19th centuries. Nakai, 38, can trace her family tree back to at least 1900, when her great-grandfather was listed as Indian on the federal census.
CROATOAN was the sole complete word found on Roanoke Island by John White on 18 Aug. Ethnologists and anthropologists believe that the word ” Croatoan ” may have been a combination of two Algonquian words meaning “talk town” or “council town.” References: David B. Quinn, The Roanoke Voyages, 1584-1590 (2 vols., 1955).
While the term “ Native Americans ” came into usage in the 1960s out of respect to American Indians and Alaska Natives, usage of the term has expanded to include all Native people of the United States and its territories, including Native Hawaiians and American Samoans.
The State of North Carolina recognizes eight tribes: Eastern Band of Cherokee (tribal reservation in the Mountains) Coharie (Sampson and Harnett counties) Lumbee (Robeson and surrounding counties) Haliwa-Saponi (Halifax and Warren counties) Sappony (Person County) Meherrin (Hertford and surrounding counties)
Toward century’s end, the town was renamed for railroad official Pembroke Jones.
This surname originated in England. It was taken from the workers who farmed Oxen there. Although some argue Lumbee indians may have brought it to North Carolina.
Within the U.S., there are 562 Native American tribes. The largest are Navajo, Cherokee and Sioux. More than 3 million people in the U.S. are Native people.
The flag has an orange field with the “Great Seal of the Cherokee Nation” at its center. The seal is surrounded by seven yellow stars with seven points. Each of the stars points toward the star in the center of the seal. The seven-pointed stars represent the seven clans of the Cherokee.
The Pan-African flag—also known as the Afro-American flag, Black Liberation flag, UNIA flag and various other names—is a tri-color flag consisting of three equal horizontal bands of (from top down) red, black and green.