Each Jumano village had its own leader and its own government. Government is a system for ruling or running a town or country. Like other Pueblo people, the Jumano were farmers. Because they lived in such a dry land, it was hard to farm.
Jumano leader Don Juan Sabeata, on behalf of his group and 12 other Jumano nations, implored the Spanish to travel to their lands on the Concho River, establish settlements, and help them against the warlike intruders.
As of 2013, they have registered 300 members in the United States and seek to be recognized as a tribe. The tribal chieftain, Gabriel Carrasco, said he believed there could be another 3,000 people who would qualify.
Although they ranged over much of northern Mexico, New Mexico, and Texas, their most enduring territorial base was in central Texas between the lower Pecos River and the Colorado. The Jumanos were buffalo hunters and traders, and played an active role as middlemen between the Spanish colonies and various Indian tribes.
The Arapaho, Assiniboine, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Comanche, Crow, Gros Ventre, Kiowa, Plains Apache, Plains Cree, Plains Ojibwe, Sarsi, Shoshone, Sioux, and Tonkawa. and were all nomadic tribes who followed the buffalo herds and lived in tipis.
Little is known of the Jumano Indians’ spiritual or religious practices, although the historical record indicates it may have involved hallucinogens, such as peyote, as part of Jumano ritual. In the 1600s, Spanish priests witnessed Jumano catzinas, a kind of ritual dance performed for religious reasons.
Jumano are believed to have been farmers, and buffalo hunters, known for their pottery use as well.
The Jumano Indians wore garments made from different animal hides, including moccasins. Women often wore skirts, short-sleeve tunics and aprons. Men typically wore pants and capes. Both men and women would wear cloaks to protect their skin from the cold and the wind.
The Karankawa have been described for centuries as ” cannibals,” now believed by many to be a falsehood initially perpetuated by the Spanish after they failed to convert them to Catholicism at missionary settlements in La Bahía and Refugio.
The Wichita band of Indians was one of several bands that composed the Wichita confederacy. The Wichita called themselves Kitikiti’sh, meaning “raccoon eyes,” because the designs of tattoos around the men’s eyes resembled the eyes of the raccoon.
The Jumano were known for their tattooed or painted bodies and as successful bison hunters whose original homelands included areas of the southern Plains and northwestern Edwards Plateau that were frequented by bison herds.
The Jicarilla Apache were just one of six southern Athapascan groups that migrated out of Canada sometime around 1300 to 1500 A.D. Moving their way south, they settled in the southwest where their traditional homeland covered more than 50 million acres across north New Mexico, southern Colorado and western Oklahoma.
Facts about the Jumano They were a peaceful tribe and covered themselves with tatoos. These Jumanos were nomadic, and wandered along what is known today as the Colorado, the Rio Grande, and the Concho rivers. The Jumanos were good hunters. They hunted wild buffalo.
About 30 – 40 lived in each house. Inside the house, the rooms were painted with red, yellow, and white stripes. Although the region was dry, they settled along the Rio Grande and used irrigation to grow corn, squash, beans other vegetables, and possibly ctn order to trade their crops, jewelry or feathers.
Indians quickly adapted to using horses for warfare and hunting. Indians relied on the buffalo to survive. With the horse, they improved their ability to hunt to the point that they were able to create a surplus. They used the surplus of buffalo hides to trade with Europe and the United States.