The resulting confederacy, whose governing Great Council of 50 peace chiefs, or sachems (hodiyahnehsonh), still meets in a longhouse, is made up of six nations: the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, and Tuscarora.
The Top Ten: Largest Native American Reservations in the U.S.
|1.||Navajo Nation (Ariz.-N.M.-Utah)||169,321|
|2.||Pine Ridge Reservation, (S.D.-Nebr.)||16,906|
|3.||Fort Apache Reservation, (Ariz.)||13,014|
|4.||Gila River Indian Reservation, (Ariz.)||11,251|
The number of people in the U.S. identifying as American Indian has climbed in recent years, with California, Arizona and Oklahoma accounting for the largest concentration of the nation’s American Indian and Alaska Native populations, according to a new USAFacts analysis of Census Bureau data.
Today, the Shakopee Mdewakanton are believed to be the richest tribe in American history as measured by individual personal wealth: Each adult, according to court records and confirmed by one tribal member, receives a monthly payment of around $84,000, or $1.08 million a year.
Allen, South Dakota, on the Pine Ridge Reservation, has the lowest per capita income in the country. Poverty rates on the ten largest reservations.
|Reservation||Cheyenne River Indian Reservation|
|Poverty Rate (Families with Children)||42.3|
|Poverty Rate (Individuals)||38.5|
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Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations: California, Arizona and Oklahoma have the largest populations of Native Americans in the United States.
They are known to us today as the Wendat (also known as Huron,) Neutral-Wenro, Erie, Laurentian (or St. Lawrence Iroquoian,) Susquehannock, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk, Tuscarora, Nottaway, and Cherokee.
|Tribal group||Total||American Indian/Alaska Native alone|
|American Indian tribes|
The consensus, however, is that whenever possible, Native people prefer to be called by their specific tribal name. In the United States, Native American has been widely used but is falling out of favor with some groups, and the terms American Indian or indigenous American are preferred by many Native people.
The Clovis culture, the earliest definitively-dated Paleo-Indians in the Americas, appears around 11,500 RCBP (radiocarbon years Before Present), equivalent to 13,500 to 13,000 calendar years ago.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs uses a blood quantum definition—generally one-fourth Native American blood —and/or tribal membership to recognize an individual as Native American. However, each tribe has its own set of requirements—generally including a blood quantum—for membership (enrollment) of individuals.
The practice was most common among eastern Woodland Indians and tribesmen of the Plains. The farther west you moved, the rarer it became. Warriors of the Great Plains decorated their bridles, lances and shields with scalp locks raised from the enemies.
Quahadis were the hardest, fiercest, least yielding component of a tribe that had long had the reputation as the most violent and warlike on the continent; if they ran low on water, they were known to drink the contents of a dead horse’s stomach, something even the toughest Texas Ranger would not do.
Across the United States, 1 in 3 Native Americans are living in poverty, with a median income of $23,000 a year.