Like many other Plains Indians, the Pawnee traditionally lived in large dome-shaped earth-covered lodges during most of the year, opting for tepees while on bison hunts. Pawnee women raised corn (maize), squash, and beans and were practiced in the art of pottery making.
The Pawnee were one of the largest and most powerful of the groups living on the central plains. Their territory extended north from central Kansas through Nebraska and included large hunting areas of the high plains to the west. According to Pawnee legend, Pawnee ancestors came from the south.
The Pawnee tribe were semi-nomadic hunters and farmers and particularly noted for their interest in astronomy. Unlike most of the Native Indians of the Great Plains, they lived in earth lodges and farmed for most of the year.
Small animals, as well as birds and fish, were common sources of food. Wild animals of many types provided the hunter with game. Herds of bison wandered the Plains, and their meat, next to corn, formed the main food for the Pawnee. One bison provided enough meat to feed one person for a year.
Quahadis were the hardest, fiercest, least yielding component of a tribe that had long had the reputation as the most violent and warlike on the continent; if they ran low on water, they were known to drink the contents of a dead horse’s stomach, something even the toughest Texas Ranger would not do.
Today they are the federally recognized Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma, who are headquartered in Pawnee, Oklahoma. Historically, the Pawnee lived in villages of earth lodges with adjacent farmlands near the Loup, Republican, and South Platte rivers.
In the 21st century, the Comanche Nation has 17,000 members, around 7,000 of whom reside in tribal jurisdictional areas around Lawton, Fort Sill, and the surrounding areas of southwestern Oklahoma.
The Pawnee language is a Caddoan language spoken by some Pawnee Native Americans who now live in north-central Oklahoma.
Where do the Pawnees live? The Pawnee Indians are original people of Nebraska and Kansas. The Pawnee tribe was forced to move to a reservation in Oklahoma during the 1800’s, and most Pawnee people are still living in Oklahoma today.
: a member of an American Indian people originally of Kansas and Nebraska.
The Jicarilla Apache were just one of six southern Athapascan groups that migrated out of Canada sometime around 1300 to 1500 A.D. Moving their way south, they settled in the southwest where their traditional homeland covered more than 50 million acres across north New Mexico, southern Colorado and western Oklahoma.
Much of their food came from the forests and rivers. Trees were a major resource for the Kwakiutl. The Kwakiutl hunted in both the rivers and the forests. They ate beaver, deer, rabbit, and fish.
The Kansas had a varied diet. Kansa men worked together to hunt buffalo, and also shot deer and other small game. Kansa women raised crops of corn, beans, squash, and sunflowers. The Kansas also gathered wild foods such as potatoes, roots, and berries.
The Pawnee used buffalo hides for making different types of transportation. They made toboggans by tying buffalo ribs together and they made bullboats, for travel by river, by stretching buffalo hide over willow branches. The tribe lived in earthen lodges near rivers, which were permanent structures.