The Hohokam people abandoned most of their settlements during the period between 1350 and 1450. It is thought that the Great Drought (1276–99), combined with a subsequent period of sparse and unpredictable rainfall that persisted until approximately 1450, contributed to this process.
Comparative language studies suggest that many of the Hohokam people spoke a variety of ancient Tepiman, but certain odd words used by the historical Akimel O’odham and Tohono O’odham are more closely related to the Zuni In- dian language of western New Mexi- co than to the main Tepiman lang- uage, suggesting that most
The Hohokam peoples occupied a wide area of south-central Arizona from roughly Flagstaff south to the Mexican border. They are thought to have originally migrated north out of Mexico around 300 BC to become the most skillful irrigation farmers the Southwest ever knew.
Corn was the main food of the Hohokam. Corn was dried and ground between stones called a mano and metate to make corn meal. Beans and squash were also grown and could be eaten fresh or dried in the sun and stored for winter.
The Hohokam are probably most famous for their creation of extensive irrigation canals along the Salt and Gila rivers. In fact, the Hohokam had the largest and most complex irrigation systems of any culture in the New World north of Peru.
Near their villages, on floodplains or alluvial slopes, the Hohokam established fields of corn, beans, squash, and cotton. They used every possible space to grow crops, even building small terraces and check dams on hill slopes to collect and divert rainfall runoff toward their fields.
The Hohokam culture was differentiated from others in the region in the 1930s by the archaeologist Harold S. Gladwin.
The Hohokam Indians made simple clothing from animal skins and plant fibers. Villagers wore breechcloths and aprons. In winter, they wore buckskin shirts, cloth ponchos, and blankets. For foot protection, sandals were worn.
Hohokam culture, prehistoric North American Indians who lived approximately from 200 to 1400 ce in the semiarid region of present-day central and southern Arizona, largely along the Gila and Salt rivers.
The Hohokam grew cotton that was spun into tread and woven to make fabric. trade – to take one item for another of equal or greater value. Prehistoric communities traded for materials or goods that they could not make or find nearby. The Hohokam traded for items from as far away as Mexico and California.
The Hohokam were the only culture in North America to rely on irrigation canals to supply water to their crops. In the arid desert environment of the Salt and Gila River Valleys, the homeland of the Hohokam, there was not enough rainfall to grow crops. Many of the canals were massive in size.
The name Hohokam (pronounced with the accent on the last syllable) comes from the word Hoohoogum, the name given by the contemporary Native Americans in this area to the prehistoric peoples whom they claim as their ancestors. The Hohokam people occupied the valley and much of southern Arizona from A.D. 1 to 1450.
The prehistoric Hohokam constructed one of the largest and most sophisticated irrigation networks ever created using pre-industrial technology. The canals were constructed over several hundreds of years. Several new canals were constructed between AD 900 and AD 1100.
: a prehistoric American Indian inhabitant of the canyons of northern Arizona and New Mexico and southwestern Colorado.
“The only thing that rivals it is on the desert coast of Peru, and those canals aren’t as large.” The canal systems allowed the Hohokam to farm corn, cotton, beans, tobacco and squash. They were skilled farmers and would manage the soil to replace lost nutrients.