When the Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians invaded Britain, during the 5th and 6th centuries AD, the area they conquered slowly became known as England (from Angle-land).
Within nine years the Vikings had attacked and established their rule, or Danelaw, over the kingdoms of Northumbria and East Anglia, their former Anglo-Saxon kings having been put to the sword.
What happened to the Anglo-Saxons in 1066? During the 11th century, Anglo-Saxon England was conquered not once but twice. The Danish king, Cnut, ousted the native Anglo-Saxon dynasty in 1016, and he and his sons reigned in England until 1042.
Estimates by the archaeologist Dr. Heinrich Haerke suggest that the Anglo – Saxon invasions, beginning in the 4th century AD, added about 250,000 people to a British population of one to two million. Dr. Haerke has calculated that the Norman invasion of AD 1066 introduced not many more than 10,000 people.
Vikings were pagans and often raided monasteries looking for gold. Money paid as compensation. The Anglo – Saxons came from The Netherlands (Holland), Denmark and Northern Germany. The Normans were originally Vikings from Scandinavia.
Both were Germanic groups who engaged in acts of piracy and conquest in the North-Sea in the Iron Age. The main difference was that the Saxons: Came from the area south of Denmark, while the Vikings came from Denmark, Sweden and Norway (Jutes and Angles, allies of the Saxons came from Denmark though)
As too why they would leave? Britain had low defense, lots of arable land and minerals, and lots of wealth. The perfect target for anyone who wants to raid, invade, trade, or lay claim. The Saxons / Angles were most likely pushed out of their homeland by the Danes and/or climate change though if it was a mass migration.
A DNA study of Britons has shown that genetically there is not a unique Celtic group of people in the UK. And it shows that the invading Anglo Saxons did not wipe out the Britons of 1,500 years ago, but mixed with them.
Ethnically, the Anglo-Saxons actually represented an admixture of Germanic peoples with Britain’s preexisting Celtic inhabitants and subsequent Viking and Danish invaders. Although Germanic foederati, allies of Roman and post-Roman authorities, had settled in England in the
Historically, Anglo – Saxon studies itself has reinforced superiority of northern European or ‘ Anglo – Saxon ‘ whiteness. Today we see the word misused extensively as a label for white identity despite it being inaccurate.
The four main kingdoms in Anglo-Saxon England were: East Anglia. Mercia. Northumbria, including sub-kingdoms Bernicia and Deira. Wessex.
It is derived from the Greek words for “seven” and “rule.” The seven kingdoms were Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Sussex, and Wessex.
Arrival of the Romans Roman troops from across the Empire, as far as Spain, Syria, Egypt, and the Germanic provinces of Batavia and Frisia (modern Netherlands, Belgium, and the Rhineland area of Germany), were garrisoned in Roman towns, and many married local Britons.
Most Anglo – Saxons kept clear of Roman towns, wanting to build their own houses. But warrior chiefs knew that a walled city made a good fortress, so they would take control of them. Most Roman buildings not taken over by the Anglo – Saxons were left alone to rot and become ruins.
The English largely descend from two main historical population groups – the Germanic tribes who settled in southern Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans (including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians), and the partially Romanised Britons who had been living there already.