There are two types of Hohokam houses, pithouses and adobe houses. A pithouse is a house built into the ground. They dug a shallow hole 3 feet deep and then built the wall of the house. The walls and roof were made of vertical beams.
Hohokam culture, prehistoric North American Indians who lived approximately from 200 to 1400 ce in the semiarid region of present-day central and southern Arizona, largely along the Gila and Salt rivers.
The Hohokam were a prehistoric people that inhabited the Sonoran desert of central Arizona from about AD 300 to AD 1400. Occupying the region around modern-day Phoenix along the Salt and Gila Rivers, the Hohokam were one of several relatively advanced cultures in the American Southwest during that period.
Near their villages, on floodplains or alluvial slopes, the Hohokam established fields of corn, beans, squash, and cotton. They used every possible space to grow crops, even building small terraces and check dams on hill slopes to collect and divert rainfall runoff toward their fields.
Comparative language studies suggest that many of the Hohokam people spoke a variety of ancient Tepiman, but certain odd words used by the historical Akimel O’odham and Tohono O’odham are more closely related to the Zuni In- dian language of western New Mexi- co than to the main Tepiman lang- uage, suggesting that most
The Hohokam are probably most famous for their creation of extensive irrigation canals along the Salt and Gila rivers. In fact, the Hohokam had the largest and most complex irrigation systems of any culture in the New World north of Peru.
The Hohokam culture was differentiated from others in the region in the 1930s by the archaeologist Harold S. Gladwin.
Contemporary scientists think that life was pretty good for the Ancient Ones, especially during this second period. In addition to the drought and marauding enemy theories, scientists suggest that things like poor sanitation, pests, and environmental degradation may have caused the Anasazi to move.
The Hohokam were the only culture in North America to rely on irrigation canals to supply water to their crops. In the arid desert environment of the Salt and Gila River Valleys, the homeland of the Hohokam, there was not enough rainfall to grow crops. Many of the canals were massive in size.
As they headed south in search of rain, the Anasazi left behind trails of pottery and architecture. For 1,000 years, long before Columbus, the Anasazi Indians were lords of what’s now the American Southwest. Then, apparently without warning, the Anasazi all but disappeared.
Anasazi as a cultural label The name ” Anasazi ” has come to mean “ancient people,” although the word itself is Navajo, meaning “enemy ancestors.” [The Navajo word is anaasází (<anaa- “enemy”, sází “ancestor”).]
What happened that contradicted that? A persistent drought, lasting from about 1130-1180 CE, decimated the Anasazi crops, and a major flood in 1358 destroyed the Hohokam irrigation system.
The Hohokam grew cotton that was spun into tread and woven to make fabric. trade – to take one item for another of equal or greater value. Prehistoric communities traded for materials or goods that they could not make or find nearby. The Hohokam traded for items from as far away as Mexico and California.
The name Hohokam (pronounced with the accent on the last syllable) comes from the word Hoohoogum, the name given by the contemporary Native Americans in this area to the prehistoric peoples whom they claim as their ancestors. The Hohokam people occupied the valley and much of southern Arizona from A.D. 1 to 1450.
The prehistoric Hohokam constructed one of the largest and most sophisticated irrigation networks ever created using pre-industrial technology. The canals were constructed over several hundreds of years. Several new canals were constructed between AD 900 and AD 1100.