The Caddos were the most advanced Native American culture in Texas. They lived in tall, grass-covered houses in large settlements with highly structured social, religious and political systems. The Caddos raised corn, beans, squash and other crops.
Most of the Caddo historically lived in the Piney Woods ecoregion of the United States, divided among the state regions of East Texas, southern Arkansas, western Louisiana, and southeastern Oklahoma.
They settled on the hills to the southwest of the prairie (Soda Lake) near modern Caddo Station and added their numbers to the other Red River tribes in Louisiana.
Today, the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma is a federally recognized tribe with its capital at Binger, Oklahoma. The several Caddo dialects have converged into a single language. Today, there are nearly 5,000 enrolled members of the nation.
Caddo Indian men wore breechcloths, sometimes with leather leggings to protect their legs. Caddo women wore wraparound skirts and poncho tops made of woven fiber and deerskin. Both genders wore earrings and moccasins. Caddo men did not usually wear shirts, but in cold weather, both men and women wore buffalo robes.
Caddo Ritual and Religion. In the late 17th century the Hasinai were said to believe in a supreme god called the Caddi Ayo or Ayo-Caddi-Aymay, sometimes translated as “captain of the sky.” The Caddi Ayo was believed to be the creator of all things and was held in great deference.
Caddo, one tribe within a confederacy of North American Indian tribes comprising the Caddoan linguistic family. Their name derives from a French truncation of kadohadacho, meaning “real chief” in Caddo. The Caddo proper originally occupied the lower Red River area in what are now Louisiana and Arkansas.
The Aztec, Maya, and Inca were very advanced. The had been empires prior to European contact. Teotihuacan was larger and earlier than Cahokia.
According to some sources, the Karankawa practiced ritual cannibalism, in common with other Gulf coastal tribes of present-day Texas and Louisiana. The Karankawa people were shocked at the Spanish cannibalism, which they found to be repugnant.
The large beehive-shaped grass houses of the Caddo and Wichita peoples were permanent dwellings found mainly in East Texas and adjoining areas of neighboring states. Grass houses were much larger than tipis, sometimes reaching 50 feet tall and housing two or more families!
There is disagreement as to the meaning of the word ” Ouachita.” Its Choctaw meaning is “Big Hunting Ground,” but it also means, “silver water.” Years before the “Louisiana Purchase” the present site of Monroe was a more or less established point of contact on the banks of the Ouachita River for the fur traders and
The Nacogdoche (Nacadocheeto, Nacodissy, Nacodochito, Nagodoche, Nasahossoz, Naugdoche, Nocodosh) Indians, a Caddoan tribe of the Hasinai group in eastern Texas, lived in the vicinity of present Nacogdoches in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
The Caddo Nation of the late 1990s was a union of the Kadohadacho, the Hasinai, and the Natchitoches peoples. The Caddo are governed by a constitution and an eight-member elected board, although every tribal member has a say in the decision-making process.
Most Caddo settled along the rich Red River Valley, and as time passed Americans realized the agricultural potential of their inhabited lands and trade was put on the back burner. The Louisiana Purchase was the impetus for the relocation of the Caddo.