Indian Nations of Texas Alabama-Coushatta. Though recognized as two separate tribes, the Alabamas and Coushattas have long been considered one tribe culturally. Anadarko. The Anadarkos lived in East Texas in present-day Nacogdoches and Rusk counties. Apache. Arapaho. Biloxi. Caddo. Cherokee. Cheyenne.
Students identify the four cultures of Native Americans in Texas: Gulf, Southeastern, Plains, and Pueblo.
The resulting confederacy, whose governing Great Council of 50 peace chiefs, or sachems (hodiyahnehsonh), still meets in a longhouse, is made up of six nations: the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, and Tuscarora.
The names of the Texas tribes included the Apache, Alabama, Atakapa, Biloxi, Caddo, Cherokee, Choctaw, Comanche, Creeks, Koasati, Koroa, Kiowa, Pueblos, Quapaw, Shawnee, Waco, Wichita and Zuni. Some of these tribes migrated to the Great Plains.
Texians were residents of Mexican Texas and, later, the Republic of Texas. Mexican settlers of that era are referred to as Tejanos, and residents of modern Texas are known as Texans.
Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma. Eastern Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Reservation, Wyoming. Elem Indian Colony of Pomo Indians of the Sulphur Bank Rancheria, California. Elk Valley Rancheria, California. Ely Shoshone Tribe of Nevada. Enterprise Rancheria of Maidu Indians of California.
Unlike most western states, Texas today has almost no Indian lands, the result of systematic warfare by Texas and the United States against indigenious groups in the nineteenth century that decimated tribes or drove them onto reservations in other states.
There are three federally recognized Indian tribes in Texas today.
(See Comanche Nation website.) Other tribes who are known to have had a brief presence in the South Texas Plains were the, Shawnee, Caddo, Kiowa, Kickapoo, and Seminole.
Today, the Shakopee Mdewakanton are believed to be the richest tribe in American history as measured by individual personal wealth: Each adult, according to court records and confirmed by one tribal member, receives a monthly payment of around $84,000, or $1.08 million a year.
Allen, South Dakota, on the Pine Ridge Reservation, has the lowest per capita income in the country. Poverty rates on the ten largest reservations.
|Reservation||Cheyenne River Indian Reservation|
|Poverty Rate (Families with Children)||42.3|
|Poverty Rate (Individuals)||38.5|
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The Navajo tribe is the most populous, with 308,013 people identifying with the group. The Cherokee tribe is the second most common, with 285,476 Americans identifying with that group.
The Sun Dance was the most important ceremony practiced by the Lakota (Sioux) and nearly all Plains Indians. It was a time of renewal for the tribe, people and earth.