The native languages of today’s Pueblo peoples are grouped into three main language families: Tano, Keres, and Zuni. There are three separate dialects within the Tanoan language: Tewa, Tiwa, and Towa. Tiwa dialect is spoken in Taos, Picuris, Sandia, and Isleta Pueblos.
Though the Pueblo Indians all have closely related cultures, they do not all speak the same language. The Hopi language is a Uto-Aztecan language, distantly related to the language of the Aztecs. All four of these language groups are traditionally oral languages, which means they were not written down.
Although most present-day pueblos are known by their Spanish or anglicized Spanish name, most Pueblos have a unique name in each of the different languages spoken in the area. Despite not being a Puebloan language, Navajo names are also included due to prolonged contact between them and the several Pueblos.
The Ancient Pueblo people were very good farmers despite the harsh and arid climate. They ate mainly corn, beans, and squash. They knew how to dry their food and could store it for years. Women ground the dried corn into flour, which they made into paper-thin cakes.
The Hopi are a Native American tribe who primarily live on the Hopi Reservation in northeastern Arizona. The Hopi encountered Spaniards in the 16th century, and are historically referred to as Pueblo people, because they lived in villages (pueblos in the Spanish language).
To cover themselves, Pueblo Indian men wore short kilts or breechcloths. Women wore mantas, which were made from cotton and fastened at the right shoulder. Both men and women wore deerskin moccasins on their feet, and women would wear painted moccasins and deerskin shin garments for weddings.
Pueblo is one of the largest steel-producing cities in the United States, for which reason Pueblo is referred to as the “Steel City”. The Historic Arkansas River Project (HARP) is a riverwalk in the Union Avenue Historic Commercial District, and shows the history of the devastating Pueblo Flood of 1921.
The Pueblo Tribe consists of twenty-one separate Native American groups that lived in the southwestern area of the United States, primarily in Arizona and New Mexico. They get their name from the Spanish who called their towns “pueblos” which means village or little town in Spanish.
In a typical pueblo building, adobe blocks form the walls of each room as well as a central courtyard; buildings can be up to five stories tall. Usually each floor is set back from the floor below, so that a given building resembles a stepped pyramid.
Quahadis were the hardest, fiercest, least yielding component of a tribe that had long had the reputation as the most violent and warlike on the continent; if they ran low on water, they were known to drink the contents of a dead horse’s stomach, something even the toughest Texas Ranger would not do.
The Hopi Indians are the oldest Native American tribe in the World. Just like the Ancient Egyptians and Ancient Mayans, they trace the roots of their culture back to the lost civilization of Atlantis.
The nineteen Pueblos are comprised of the Pueblos of Acoma, Cochiti, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, Nambe, Ohkay Owingeh, Picuris, Pojoaque, Sandia, San Felipe, San Ildefonso, Santa Ana, Santa Clara, Santo Domingo, Taos, Tesuque, Zuni and Zia.
The Pueblos always had their own religion. Their religion taught respect for nature and provided all the things necessary for life. The Pueblos prayed to kachinas(Spirits) in under ground rooms called kivas. Today many Pueblo Indians follow traditional religion.
Corn, beans, and squash were the most important crops. The Ancestral Pueblo people depended on agriculture to sustain them in their more sedentary lifestyle. Corn, beans, and squash were the most important crop items.
Pueblo homes were built of bricks made from adobe clay. The bricks were made by mixing clay, sand, grass, and straw together and then setting them in the sun to harden.