The Lumbee are the descendants of a mix of Siouan-, Algonquian-, and Iroquoian-speaking peoples who, in the 1700s, settled in the swamps along the Lumber River in southeastern North Carolina, intermarrying with whites and with blacks, both free and enslaved.
Lumbee Indians are recognized as the largest-known Native American tribe in North Carolina, the largest tribe east of the Mississippi River and the ninth-largest tribe in the nation. The Lumbee take their name from the Lumber River, which winds its way through Robeson County.
The Lumbee are descended from several Carolina tribes, including the Cheraw, who intermarried with whites and free African Americans in the 18th and 19th centuries. Nakai, 38, can trace her family tree back to at least 1900, when her great-grandfather was listed as Indian on the federal census.
Language: The language most commonly referred to as ‘Lumbee’ was an Algonkian language also known as Croatan or Pamlico, but the ancestors of the modern-day Lumbee Indians also included speakers of several other languages, including Tuscarora, Catawba, Cheraw, and other Iroquoian and Siouan languages little is known
The approximate legal definition for Native Americans or American Indians in the United States is that they are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii.
“A hundred years ago a colony of Croatans settled in eastern Tennessee, on Newman’s Ridge, in Hancock county. They can’t tell today where they came from, for tradition over 50 years isn’t worth anything. These are the people called Melungeons.
Yes, they do have facial and body hair but very little, and they tend to pluck it from their faces as often as it grows. Concerning hair, American Indian anthropologist Julianne Jennings of Eastern Connecticut State University says natives grew hair on their heads to varying degrees, depending on the tribe.
Lumbee women probably all wore knee-length skirts and Lumbee men probably all wore breechcloths. The Lumbees definitely wore moccasins on their feet. And Lumbee men and women both wore tattoos on their bodies. Here are some photos and links about Native Indian clothing in general.
CROATOAN was the sole complete word found on Roanoke Island by John White on 18 Aug. Ethnologists and anthropologists believe that the word ” Croatoan ” may have been a combination of two Algonquian words meaning “talk town” or “council town.” References: David B. Quinn, The Roanoke Voyages, 1584-1590 (2 vols., 1955).
The Locklears of the Lumbee are like a tribe within a tribe. She concedes that it is far and away the “most common surname among Lumbees.” Other common Lumbee names are Oxendine, Hunt, Chavis, Jacobs, Dial and Lowry.
These include the Chowanoke, Croatoan, Hatteras, Moratoc, Secotan, Weapemeoc, Machapunga, Pamlico, Coree, Neuse River, Tuscarora, Meherrin, Cherokee, Cape Fear, Catawba, Shakori, Sissipahaw, Sugeree, Waccamaw, Waxhaw, Woccon, Cheraw, Eno, Keyauwee, Occaneechi, Saponi, and Tutelo Indians.
www.bia.gov/bia/ois/tgs/genealogy Publishes a downloadable Guide to Tracing Your Indian Ancestry. Has a vast online library, Tracing Native American Family Roots. www.ncai.org/ tribal -directory Provides the online tribal directory where contact information for specific tribes can be found.
The State of North Carolina recognizes eight tribes: Eastern Band of Cherokee (tribal reservation in the Mountains) Coharie (Sampson and Harnett counties) Lumbee (Robeson and surrounding counties) Haliwa-Saponi (Halifax and Warren counties) Sappony (Person County) Meherrin (Hertford and surrounding counties)
English: habitational name from places called Oxendean in East Sussex and Kent or Oxenden in Kent, all named in Old Englsih as ‘valley of the oxen’.
Toward century’s end, the town was renamed for railroad official Pembroke Jones.