Luiseño men usually wore no clothes in warm weather. During cold weather they wore fur capes of rabbit and deerskin; those who lived along the Pacific Coast also wore capes of sea otter skins.
Luiseno, also spelled Luiseño, is pronounced loo-ee-sane-yoh. This was the Spanish name for the tribe. Their own name for themselves was Payomkawichum, which means “Western people,” but most modern tribal members prefer Luiseno today. Where do the Luisenos live? The Luiseno are Southern California Indians.
The Juaneño lived in what is now part of Orange and San Diego Counties and received their Spanish name from the priests of the California mission chain due to their proximity to Mission San Juan Capistrano. Today they call themselves the Juaneño Band of Mission Indians.
The Cupeño are a Native American tribe of Southern California. Their name in their own language is Kuupangaxwichem (“people who slept here.”) They traditionally lived about 50 miles (80 km) inland and 50 miles (80 km) north of the modern day Mexico –United States border in the Peninsular Range of Southern California.
Pechanga Resort Casino is wholly owned and operated by the Pechanga Band of Luiseño Indians. Opened in 2002, Pechanga is the largest resort/casino on the West Coast and one of the largest in the country, with 200,000 square feet of gaming space.
Today, the Shakopee Mdewakanton are believed to be the richest tribe in American history as measured by individual personal wealth: Each adult, according to court records and confirmed by one tribal member, receives a monthly payment of around $84,000, or $1.08 million a year.
Allen, South Dakota, on the Pine Ridge Reservation, has the lowest per capita income in the country. Extreme poverty rates on the ten largest reservations.
|Reservation||Location||Extreme Poverty Rate|
|Standing Rock Indian Reservation||South Dakota and North Dakota||16.6|
How much does each tribal member receive? According to court records, it’s about $13,000 a month, or, about $156,000 a year.
Mission San Juan Capistrano
|Patron||Saint John of Capestrano|
|Nickname (s)||“Jewel of the Missions” “Mission of the Swallow” “Mission of the Tragedies”|
|Founding date||October 30, 1775 (1st) November 1, 1776 (2nd) it was the 4th mission.|
|U.S. National Register of Historic Places|
Like the previous six missions, San Juan Capistrano was established to expand the territorial boundaries of Spain, and to spread Christianity to the Native peoples of California. The idea was to make colonial outposts called missions, led by Franciscan padres and Spanish soldiers.
Crowned the “Jewel of the Missions,” Mission San Juan Capistrano stands today as a significant religious monument and a testament to California’s rich multicultural history. This sacred space has been revered not only as an important historical site but also as a work of art in itself.
The Cupenos were hunter-gatherers, and moved from place to place frequently as they gathered food for their families. Cupeno men hunted deer, rabbits, and small game. Cupeno women gathered acorns, nuts, beans, and fruits.
Fed by the Colorado River, it dried up sometime before 1700, following one of the repeated shifts in the river’s course. In 1905 a break in a levee created the much smaller Salton Sea in the same location. The Cahuilla lived from the land by using native plants.