From at least A.D. 1000, a group of farming Indians known as the Apalachee lived in northwest Florida. Other tribes respected the Apalachees because they belonged to an advanced Indian civilization, they were prosperous, and they were fierce warriors. For food, they grew corn, beans and squash.
But their descendants do not live in that location anymore. The Apalachees were nearly destroyed by war in the early 1700’s, and most of the survivors fled to Alabama and Louisiana, where the remaining Apalachee people are living today.
The most important foods for the Apalachee were the crops they grew in their fields. They grew corn, beans, and squash (called the “three sisters”). They also harvested wild grapes, acorns, hickory nuts, and blackberries. They fished in the rivers and gathered shellfish and turtles.
1a: a Muskogean people of northwestern Florida. b: a member of such people. 2: the language of the Apalachee people.
The men painted their bodies with red ochre and placed feathers in their hair when they prepared for battle. The men smoked tobacco in ceremonial rituals, including ones for healing. The Apalachee scalped opponents whom they killed, exhibiting the scalps as signs of warrior ability.
More than 1,500 Apalachee Indians and Spaniards lived at the mission. What Happened To Them? Following a series of devastating attacks on Spanish Florida by the British and their Creek Indian allies, Mission San Luis was burned and abandoned by its residents on July 31, 1704.
The Calusa (kah LOOS ah) lived on the sandy shores of the southwest coast of Florida. These Indians controlled most of south Florida. The population of this tribe may have reached as many as 50,000 people.
Prevailing theories suggest that Native Americans are descended from a group of East Asians who crossed the Bering Sea via a land bridge perhaps 16,500 years ago, though some sites may evidence an earlier arrival. (See “Siberian, Native American Languages Linked—A First .”)
The Timucua were known to have more permanent villages than the other tribes. Each family had their own home but the cooking took place in the village and meals were held daily in a central location. They wore clothing made from deerskin and woven cloth. The men wore their hair long with a topknot.
The Apalachee were part of an extensive trade network that extended north to the Great Lakes and west to present day Oklahoma. The Florida tribe would trade shells, shark’s teeth, and smoked fish for copper, mica, and other minerals not found in their native land.
Tribes included the Karok, Maidu, Cahuilleno, Mojave, Yokuts, Pomo, Paiute, and Modoc. On the other hand, the mountains that divided the groups made extensive warfare impractical, and the California tribes and clans enjoyed a comparatively peaceful life.
The Calusa Indians were originally called the “Calos” which means “Fierce People.” They were descendants of Paleo- Indians who inhabited Southwest Florida approximately 12,000 years ago.
The main garb of the Ais men was a breechcloth. Many ornaments of stone, bone and shell have been found which would indicate that the women’s wearing apparel was made of the skins of animals. Hunting and fishing were the chief occupational opportunities and since wildlife was in abundance, food was no problem.
The Cherokee occupied the mountain valleys of southwest Virginia and along the banks of the Nottoway River near the North Carolina border during the Jamestown landing in 1607. They spoke the Iroquoian language.