The Inca developed a method of farming called as terrace farming in order to address this issue. They created terraces by building walls on the slopes of the hills and then filling the terraces with soil. On the slopes of mountains, large steps are used to create terraces.
The Incas were the first people to cultivate gardens on terraces. They did this by cutting terraces of level ground into the mountainside in order to create flat area suitable for cultivation. Additionally, the terraces assisted in preventing the rainfall from rushing off.
Characteristics. The walls of many Inca buildings were composed of adobe, which was often put on top of stone foundations. Inca structures were constructed out of fieldstones or semi-worked stone blocks and mud that were set in mortar.
As a result of the mountainous and erratic topography of the Andes, the Incas developed agricultural terraces in order to make the most efficient use of available arable land. In order to create level terrain, they carved into the hills a series of terraces that resembled steep stairs. They brought the water to the terraces using the sophisticated irrigation system that they had.
They constructed water storage cisterns in addition to irrigation canals that wound their way down and around the mountains in order to provide the water to the crops. They started in the lowlands and worked their way up the slopes, cutting terraces into the mountainside at ever steeper angles.
These bench terraces, also known as andenes, were dug out by the Incas so that they could build level platforms for cultivating crops on the high slopes of the Andes. These bench terraces can be seen at Machu Picchu and were likely utilized to cultivate corn or potatoes in order to supply the needs of this far-flung metropolis.
Despite this, the Incas, as well as the civilizations who came before them, were able to coax crops out of the steep slopes and sporadic streams of the Andes. They produced hardy varieties of crops including potatoes, quinoa, and corn, among others. They constructed water storage cisterns as well as irrigation canals that zigzagged and slanted their way down and around the mountains.
And between the years 1150 and 1300, the Inca who lived around Cusco began to take advantage of a significant warming trend that was occurring in the Andes. As the temperature rose, Inca farmers pushed up the hills by 244 to 305 meters (800 to 1,000 feet), constructing levels of agricultural terraces, irrigating their fields, and harvesting record amounts of maize in the process.
Along the main roadways, the Incas constructed messenger stations at regular intervals of a couple of kilometers. The message was transported from one station to the next by chasquis, also known as messengers. As memory devices, they made use of quipus, which were essentially collections of strings. Did the Incas use a form of written communication?
Maize, coca, beans, grains, potatoes, sweet potatoes, ulluco, oca, mashwa, pepper, tomatoes, peanuts, cashews, squash, cucumber, quinoa, gourd, cotton, talwi, carob, chirimoya, lcuma, guayabo, and avocado were among the crops that were farmed across the Inca Empire.
The chinampa and the terracing were the two primary agricultural practices that the Aztecs utilized in order to produce all of their food. The Chinampas were basically raised bed gardens that were constructed as artificial islands on the surface of the shallow waters of Lake Texcoco.
Agriculture was the primary contributor to the Inca economy. This resulted in the development of agricultural technology and procedures that enabled them to adapt to the challenges posed by the climate and topography of the Andean region. These achievements were essential for the expansion and maintenance of the empire. [Citation needed]
The Inca constructed some of the most sophisticated aqueducts and drainage systems in pre-Columbian America, in addition to the most extensive road network. They were also the first to develop the process of freeze-drying food and the rope suspension bridge, both of which they developed independently of any outside influence.