Tpac Amaru, the final Inca leader, was put to death by the Spanish in 1572 after a string of battles that took place over the course of the subsequent few decades. The Spanish enslaved the native peoples of the Americas and forced them to work in mines for silver and mercury. Native people were also forced to accept Catholicism against their will.
Francisco Pizarro catches Incan ruler Atahualpa The Inca people were slaughtered by Pizarro’s troops, and Atahualpa was captured and coerced into converting to Christianity before he was finally put to death. By the year 1532, the Inca Empire was immersed in a civil war that had killed off a significant portion of the population and split the allegiances of the people.
In the year 1532, at the Battle of Cajamarca, 168 Spanish soldiers under the command of the conqueror Francisco Pizarro, his brothers, and their local allies successfully captured the Sapa Inca Atahualpa. This victory came after years of preceding exploration and military engagements.
The Spanish and their local allies engaged in pitched engagements against major Inca generals such as Quisquis and Rumiahui, most notably in the Battle of Teocajas in 1534. Later on, members of the royal line of the Incas, such as Manco Inca and Tupac Amaru, staged great uprisings. At one time, Manco had 100,000 warriors in the field.
The Spanish quickly discovered the majority of the gold and silver that the Inca Empire had been hoarding for generations, and a significant sum of treasure was even personally handed to the Spanish as part of the exchange for Atahualpa’s freedom. The initial 160 soldiers who invaded Peru with Pizarro became exceedingly rich as a result of their actions.
In the same year, the Spanish seized Vilcabamba and executed Tupac Amaru, the last Inca monarch, following a brief trial. An illustration depicting the Spanish carrying out the crucifixion of Tupac Amaru. As a result of the death of Tupac Amaru, the last Inca monarch, at the hands of Spanish soldiers in 1572, any possibility of an Inca rebellion has been utterly eliminated.
The transmission of illness The most common causes of mortality among the Inca population were influenza and smallpox, and both diseases did not discriminate between the nobility and the common people; they struck both.
According to the findings of a recent research, Inca doctors in ancient Peru treated head injuries by routinely removing tiny parts of their patients’ skulls and doing so effectively. According to the findings of the research, the trepanation surgical operation was most frequently carried out on adult males to treat injuries that were most likely sustained in the course of war.
Peasants living in the Andes today who communicate in Quechua and make up around 45 percent of Peru’s total population are believed to be direct descendants of the Inca. They employ basic, age-old technologies in conjunction with their agricultural and herding practices.
Conquistadors from Spain led by Hernán Cortés formed an alliance with indigenous peoples in order to take Tenochtitlan, the capital city of the Aztec empire. The Spanish were able to take control of Tenochtitlan because to their superior armament as well as a terrible outbreak of smallpox that occurred during the 93 days that Cortés’ army laid siege to the city.
Chicha was employed by the Incas to induce unconsciousness before to minor surgical procedures, and up until the 19th century, it was still being used in certain regions to execute female circumcision. Datura, espingo, tobacco, and the San Pedro cactus all have the potential to induce a profound trance state and, most likely, anesthesia.
William Williams Keen was the first brain surgeon to practice in the United States. He was born on January 19, 1837 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and passed away on June 7, 1932 in the same city.
The Incas are credited with being the first people in recorded history to create ways for the process of freeze-drying food. Specifically, this involved taking advantage of the cold weather by covering potatoes with a towel and putting them out overnight. The Incas would come back the next day to stomp over the potatoes in order to extract any further moisture from them.